Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult. In all of their reconstructions the authors show that the ancestor of the panicoid grasses had a partially or fully homogenized, lax inflorescence with a terminal spikelet. Phosphorylation of pollen proteins in relation to self-incompatibility in rye (Secale cereale L.). 63: 2196–2199. The spikelet. Outer flowers open first and innermost flowers open last ... Spikelet Inflorescence. p. 138–155. Pedicellate bisexual flowers borne acropetally on an elongated peduncle form an inflorescence called Spike Corymb Raceme Catkin Answer: 3 Q3. Part of Springer Nature. van der Toorn, J., 1972. Grass species have evolved unique meristem fates that are central to orchestrating the diverse inflorescence architecture found in this extensive family (1, 2). Amer. 25: 59–66. STS, staminate sessile spikelet. J. Bot. There are three kinds of scales. The “spikelet meristem” (SM) plays a central role during the development of the grass inflorescence. J. In maize, the influence of hormones on sexuality has been demonstrated. & S.A. Renvoize, 1986. Donovan G.R. & H.Giese, 1984. 17: 161–170. Spikelets dot-shaped. Physiol. Polowick P.L. Precocious flowering and seeding behaviour in tissue cultured bamboos. In: G.P. Hussey M.A., E.C.Bashaw, K.W.Hignight & M.L.Dahmer, 1991. 390 pp. Many current classifications for the family use models of spikelet structure established by Eiten (1976); yet Eiten provides only a general typology of the ultimate inflorescence units found throughout the family and does not present evidence for her conclusions other than a few verbal descriptions of mature anatomy and illustrations of dissections of mature spikelets. They form small dry membranous bract found in inflorescences of Gramineae and Cyperaceae. These are stiff, dry and scaly bracts found in the spikelet inflorescence (Fig. a, Awn; am, axillary meristem; b, branch; gl, glume; l, lemma; pls, primary lateral spikelet; ts, terminal spikelet. Flowering glumes are associated with locusta and spikelet inflorescence.Flowering glumes are the lower and stouter of the two glumes immediately enclosing the floret. The single-spikelet inflorescence 1/2" tall) Category 7. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Nadgauda R.S., V.A.Parasharami & A.F.Mascarenhas, 1990. Chapman, G.P., 1992. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Plant Sci. 26: 139–145. the formation of “supernumerary spikelet/spike branching” trait and the study of peculiarities of the devel-opment of inflorescences of nonstandard branched wheat forms made it possible to demonstrate a genetic nature of hereditary variation of this trait. Techniques of inflorescence and spikelet culture have been used for three major cereals. Reproductive Versatility in the Grasses. The implications of reproductive versatility for the structure of grass populations. J. : 12 The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes.The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla.A spikelet consists of two (or sometimes fewer) bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets. 2.80I) of Betulaceae etc. Pulse-labelling study of grain filling in liquid-cultured detached spikes. Tefera, H., 1992. & B.I.Greyson, 1987. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult. D, Inflorescence enclosed terminal spikelet stage showing the terminal spikelet (1) and five branches. Spikelets are indeterminate and give rise to a variable number of florets. The growth patterns and number of spikelets, furthermore, define inflorescence architecture and yield. & J.W.Lee, 1977. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 42: 778–784. Academic Press. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Aust. Sex. Rev. Syst. In vitro culture of immature tassels of an inbred field variety of Zea mays or Oh 43. Selection of T cytoplasm maize callus cultures resistance to Helminthosporium maydis race T pathotoxin. Clayton, W.D. Maturation of stamens and ovaries on cultured ear inflorescences of maize (Zea mays L.). Amer. Using a candidate gene approach, mos1 was found to have a genomic rearrangement disrupting the expression of an ethylene response factor class of APETALA2 transcription factor related to the spikelet meristem identity genes branched silkless1 (bd1) in maize (Zea mays) and FRIZZY PANICLE (FZP) in rice (Oryza sativa). J. Chapman (Ed). Addit. Some flowers are sessile and do not have a stalk, they are directly attached to the peduncle. STS, staminate sessile spikelet. - 185.22.108.50. stalks supporting each flower in an inflorescence ... Bractlets/ Bracteoles. Tefera H. & G.P.Chapman, 1992. For wheat and barley the influence of supplying carbohydrate and nitrogen on grain content has been explored. Bar = 5 mm. The "spikelet meristem" (SM) plays a central role during the development of the grass inflorescence. p. 305–307. Most of the world's food supply is derived from cereal grains that are borne in a unique structure called the spikelet, the fundamental unit of inflorescence architecture in all grasses. A pair of inflorescence bracts called glumes is present at the base. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. Richards, A.J., 1990. Grass Evolution and Domestication. Click to see full answer. Wehling P., B.Hackauf & G.Wricke, 1994. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult. Essay # 2. 296 pp. Synthesis of salt-soluble proteins in barley. 389 pp. White P.R., 1943. An inflorescence has the following parts: a)Peduncle: It is the main supporting stalk of the inflorescence. Flowering glumes are associated with locusta and spikelet inflorescence.Flowering glumes are the lower and stouter of the two glumes immediately enclosing the floret. In reviewing this work a major concern has been to highlight an elegant system of enquiry but at the same time to indicate the remarkably small area of interest to which it has been applied. Giese H., 1992. Lett. They form small dry membranous bract found in inflorescences of Gramineae and Cyperaceae. Department of Biological Sciences, Wye College, University of London, TN25 5AH, Ashford, Kent, UK, You can also search for this author in Anther development, meiosis and pollen formation in Zea tassels cultured in defined liquid medium. & R.I.Greyson, 1984. The reproductive organs in the Poaceae (grasses) family are the basic units determining grain yield in cereal crops. p. 32–51. (5) Spikelet differentiation begins at the tip of the inflorescence and later occurs at the ends of the individual panicle branches. Each branch ... Usually female flowers are found towards the base and male flowers are found at the apex. Each flower is borne on a short stalk, called a pedicel. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on endosperm protein synthesis in wild and cultivated barley grown in spike culture. Protein and carbohydrate accumulation in normal and high-lysine barley in spike culture. Spikelets are the basic inflorescence units in rice and typically consist of a flower of interlocked lemma and palea forming a husk, two lodicules, six stamens, and one pistil. Bommineni V.R. & R.I.Greyson, 1982. Detailed inflorescence structure, including an analysis following the topologies and terminology of Troll and colleagues, has been considered elsewhere, and covered in depth in Stapleton (1997). In the control, we found that the number of grains per spikelet was as high as 4, however, most of the florets per spikelet were sterile in transgenic plants, but the grains per spikelet reached as high as 6 (Fig. Lett. & R.I.Greyson, 1990b. Watson, L. & M.J. Dallwitz, 1992. Gaz. Culture of detached spikes and early development of the fourth floret caryopsis in wheat. Plant. 7: 67–75. 10: 227–236. (Fig. the spikelet meristem, which produces 1–40 florets (depending on the species) and a series of modified leaves called bracts (Goto et al., 2001; McSteen et al., 2000; Schmidt and Ambrose, 1998). 5: 119–128. Apomixis and polyembryony in Tripsacum dactyloides. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. In vitro normal and variant development of t'ef (Eragrostis tef) spikelets. Gegenbach B.G. 62: 830–834. Knox R.B., 1967. & R.I.Greyson, 1985. Spikelet definition is - a small or secondary spike; specifically : one of the small few-flowered bracted spikes that make up the compound inflorescence of a grass or sedge. Lagudah, E.S. It has an inflorescence consisting of a single terminal spikelet, as in E. vaginatum, but with stems arising from elongate, creeping rhizomes, rather than being densely cespitose. A spikelet morphology trait (TO:0000657) which is the average number of spikelets (PO:0009051) in one or more inflorescence (PO:0009049) (e.g. 15: 473–497. Isozyme variation and correspondence with unusual infra red reflectant patterns in Phragmites australis (Poaceae). Plant. Culture media to achieve this are precisely defined. Here, we provide a detailed description … In: G.P. Physiol. Plant Physiol. Corke H. & D.Atsmon, 1990. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. 68: 239–247. & B.I.Greyson, 1990a. Kew Bull. In vitro culture of ear shoots of Zea mays and the effect of kinetin on sex expression. Each branch is a spikelet.Sessile flowers are formed in acropetal succession on the axis. The S-Z incompatibility system. Examples: Caesalpinia (peacock flower), Iberis amara (candytuft) A Handbook of Plant Tissue Culture. 25: 1–8. The spikelet is a unique structure of inflorescence in grasses that generates one to many flowers depending on its determinate or indeterminate meristem activity. 2B; Table I).Like tiller production, the number of spikelets and florets, as well as seed set, was influenced by growth conditions. Can. The aim is to encourage the application of inflorescence and spikelet culture to a much wider range of topics than hitherto. Pedicels. https://www.britannica.com/science/spikelet, Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features. Can. Effect of gibberellic acid and indole 3-acetic acid on growth and differentiation of cultured ear inflorescences of maize (Zea mays L.). p. 117–137. Trione E.J. TaSPL13 regulates inflorescence architecture and development in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ... compared with the controls that had only 6 florets per spikelet. The vascular pattern of festucoid grass axes, with particular reference to nodal plexi. In Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), the inflorescence is an unbranched spike with a terminal spikelet and a limited number of lateral spikelets. There as a modification of a simple polytelic synflorescence on an elongated peduncle form an inflorescence spike. And found to be highly variable immature tassels of an inflorescence called spike Corymb raceme Catkin Answer 3! Race T pathotoxin of hormones on sexuality has been demonstrated in rice calluses in individual.... High frequencies of pollen proteins in relation to self-incompatibility in rye ( Secale L.... 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Corymb raceme Catkin Answer: 1 Q2 are plant cells or tissues that have the capacity to produce organs... Used for three major cereals appear to be axial in nature and are not leaf primordia and produce in! Formed in acropetal succession on the floral axis is branched and each branch... usually flowers..., we provide a detailed description … Coarse grasses found in wet habitats in.