Reading the Past • 33. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} As educators, we use what we call best practices, or high quality instructional methods, to teach our students to read. Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Reading instruction in the United States has gone through many changes. The history of teaching people to read is explored from the introduction of the Greek alphabet about 3,000 years ago to the present renewed interest in sound symbol relationships. At that time, reading material was not specially written for children but consisted primarily of the Bible and some patriotic essays; the most influential early textbook was The New England Primer, published late 1680s. The history of reading instruction is, to some degree, the history of pendulum swings between these two approaches. Events in the 1800s, such as the Civil War, industrialization, and westward expansion, made it necessary for more people to be literate. London, 1896; reprint New York: B. Blom. Create an account to start this course today. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal In the mid-19th century, Rebecca Smith Pollard developed a sequential reading program of intensive synthetic phonics, complete with a separate teacher's manual and spelling and reading books. Let's quickly review what we've learned. Teachers believed that by immersing children in the world of books, they would naturally learn how to read and write over time. The result of whole language didn't quite have the effect hoped. Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Reading development involves the participation of children, parents, edu-cators and the community as a whole. In fact, an infant as young as six months old can already distinguish between the sounds of his or her mother tongue and a foreign language and by the age of 2 has mastered enough native phonemes to regularly produce 50+ words. Educators noticed that high readers were getting better quality instruction and low readers weren't learning new vocabulary. - Definition & Overview, Informal Assessments in the Classroom: Examples & Types, SIOP Model: Definition, Components & Process, What is Orthographic Processing? In colonial times, reading instruction was simple and straightforward: teach children the code and then let them read. In the United States, the debate is often more political than objective. With a decrease in test scores, researchers began studying the reading acquisition and found that learning to read isn't a natural process. Anyone can earn Teacher's guides were scripted and included instruction for low, medium, and high readers. Instruction is also determined by specific student needs; if the teacher notices students struggle with content, there is opportunity to reteach or supplement. The purpose of education in the early days in America was simply to be able to read the Bible. The philosophy was that early readers would learn to read authentically using 'real' sounds, then transition to the traditional 26-letter alphabet. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Teachers use assessments to drive instruction and to determine student achievement. Visit Reading 101: A Guide to Teaching Reading and Writing, our self-paced online course on teaching reading and writing. The look-and-say method, here called the "meaning" method, has been with us a lot longer than most people think, beginning around 1826. This webpage focuses on the history of reading instruction in the English language. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. During this time, researchers (such as the National Institute of Health) conducted studies showing that early reading acquisition depends on the understanding of the connection between sounds and letters. After educators noticed basal instruction didn't work, the pendulum began to swing in the opposite direction. 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