Programming using Embedded C . View Embedded_C_Programming_Lec2.pdf from ELECTRONIC ECE 245 at Suez Canal University. Figure 5–22 lists the interrupt routine. Low-Battery Indication The low-battery LED and low-battery conditions are monitored and controlled within a timer interrupt. But when it comes to writing C for an embedded microcontroller, the approach must be modified to get the desired final results: small, efficient, reliable, reusable code. Initially you should learn embedded C programming basics to go further into the world Embedded development. The ASCII code for the letter “Q” is a hexadecimal 51. The embedded C programming is a collection of one or more functions. Characteristics of an Embedded System Single-functioned – An embedded system usually performs a specialized operation and does the same repeatedly. 1.3 BEGINNING CONCEPTS Writing a C program is, in a sense, like building a brick house: A foundation is laid, sand and cement are used to make bricks, these bricks are arranged in rows to make a course of blocks, and the courses are then stacked to create a building. The programmer then sets the DDRx bits depending on which bits are to be used for output. It is not possible to delineate who is responsible for any particular part of the book. In the example above, if the value of y were 6 instead of 63, there would have been no errors. Configure the I/O ports: Ports->Port B->Data Direction: all Outputs->Output Value: all 1’s 5. These projects have spanned several fields, among them automotive, medical, entertainment, child development, public safety/education, sound and image compression, and construction. 7 8 Character BEL Representation ‘\a’ Equivalent Hex Value ‘\x07’ Backspace ‘\b’ ‘\x08’ TAB ‘\t’ ‘\x09’ LF (new line) ‘\n’ ‘\x0a’ VT ‘\v’ ‘\x0b’ FF ‘\f ’ ‘\x0c’ CR ‘\r’ ‘\x0d’ Table 1–3 Non-printable Character Notations Enumerations are listed constants. Latest Update: Date 23 Dec 2018. Printable character constants may be enclosed in single quotation marks (such as ‘a’). Humans are a bit “high maintenance” when it comes to developing software to relate to them. temp *= K_wd; temp /= 100; /* after this, int is safe.. */ wind_degrees = temp + Offset_wd; /* degrees from North */ outdoor_humidity = out_h / K_ih + Offset_ih; outdoor_battery = out_batt; /* % RH */ */ */ /* just counts */ if((outdoor_temp >= 20) && (outdoor_temp = 30) && (outdoor_humidity = -40) && (outdoor_temp = 5) && (wind_speed edit_display[cur_item].MaxValue) *edit_display[cur_item].value = edit_display[cur_item].MinValue; } if(SELECT_BUTTON) /* decrement the current item.. */ { /* and do limit checks.. */ BEEP_ON(); time.second = 0; /* reset the seconds to 0 when time edited */ *edit_display[cur_item].value -= 1; if(*edit_display[cur_item].value < edit_display[cur_item].MinValue) *edit_display[cur_item].value = edit_display[cur_item].MaxValue; } /* update the item on the screen.. */ set_LCD_cur(edit_display[cur_item].row,edit_display[cur_item].col); sprintf(text_buffer,"%s %02u",edit_display[cur_item].title, *edit_display[cur_item].value); Figure 5–32 Table-Driven Editing Example (Continues) 337 338 disp_str(text_buffer); delay_ms(25); BEEP_OFF(); /* a little time for switch settling.. */ while((UNITS_BUTTON) || (SELECT_BUTTON)) ; if(SET_BUTTON) { BEEP_ON(); delay_ms(25); /* a little time for switch settling.. */ BEEP_OFF(); set_LCD_cur(edit_display[cur_item].row, edit_display[cur_item].col-1); disp_char(' '); /* erase the current cursor... */ cur_item++; if(cur_item > 3) break; } } while(SET_BUTTON) ; editing = 0; clear_display(); } /* finger off? If this flag is not present, the result is right-justified, padded on the left with zeroes or spaces. The while loop can also be used to wait for an event to occur on a parallel port. Learn by doing - type and run the example programs and exercises. (evaluation version free from http://www.hpinfotech.ro/). #define OUTDOOR_TIMEOUT 15 /* seconds without valid communications */ char Outdoor_Okay; /* outdoor unit is talking.. */ int out_t,w_speed,out_batt; int w_dir,out_h,rain,checksum; /* temporary variables */ int last_rain,rainfall,which_rain; bit dp_valid, wc_valid; /* values are valid flag.. */ char packet[48]; /* buffer for incoming outdoor data */ void get_outdoor_info(void) { char *p = 0; char c = 0; int chk = 0; /* UUU$276.800.2EE.2FF.0032.0.1095*QQQ p = packet; chk = 0; c = getchar(); while(c != '*') { *p++=c; if(++chk > 46) { c = -1; /* gather data until end of message.. */ /* too much garbage? are used to delimit the values such that they can be easily decoded by the sscanf() function in the indoor unit. /* quartz crystal frequency [Hz] */ #define xtal 7372000L 377 378 /* Baud rate */ #define baud 9600 void main(void) { char mystr[11]; /* initialize the USART’s baud rate */ UBRRH=0x00; UBRRL=xtal/16/baud-1; /* initialize the USART control register RX & TX enabled, no interrupts, 8 data bits */ UCSRA=0x00; UCSRB=0xD8; UCSRC=0x86; ftoe(0.001247,2,mystr); putsf("The floating point value is: "); puts(mystr); while (1) { } } Results: The USART transmits, at 9600 baud, The floating point value is: 1.25e-3 getchar #include char getchar(void); The getchar function is a standard C language I/O function, but it has been adapted to work on embedded microcontrollers with limited resources. 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