Immediately after the loss, the Sandinistas tried to maintain unity around their revolutionary posture.  Ortega, like many political prisoners of the Somoza regime, was tortured and abused in jail. The FSLN also focused on improving the Nicaraguan health system, particularly through vaccination campaigns and the construction of public hospitals. People within the Reagan administration authorized the CIA to begin financing, arming and training rebels as anti-Sandinista guerrillas, some of whom were former officers from Somoza's National Guard. In Ortega's last days as president, through a series of legislative acts known as "The PiÃ±ata", estates that had been seized by the Sandinista government (some valued at millions and even billions of US dollars) became the private property of various FSLN officials, including Ortega himself. 2016 September - Nicaragua grants political asylum the former president of El Salvador, Mauricio Funes, who is facing allegations of corruption and money laundering at … There are no government restrictions on Internet use; the Ortega administration attempted to gain complete control over online media in 2015, but failed due to opposition from civil society, political parties, and private organizations. Download this stock image: Daniel Ortega, Nicaragua's current president and presidential candidate from the ruling Sandinista National Liberation Front shows his ballots during Nicaragua's presidential election at a polling station in Managua November 6, 2016. An anti-government protester is dragged away and arrested by police as security forces disrupt an opposition march coined "United for Freedom" in Managua, Nicaragua, Sunday, Oct. 14, 2018.  The report found the government had progressed from "using tear gas to rubber bullets, then real bullets and finally military firepower like assault rifles and grenade launchers", based on an analysis of videos posted on social media. Nicaragua Events of 2018", "The Betrayal of the Sandinista Revolution", "Review follows election fraud allegations in Nicaragua", "Conozca como Daniel Ortega preparo el fraude electoral", "Irregularities in Nicaraguan Municipal Elections", "Nicaraguan opposition demands election review", Voter fraud allegations directed at Nicaragua's Sandinistas, COMMENT: The Mugabe of Latin America âCarlos R Chamorro, "Ortega Says Capitalism In Its Death Throes", "Nicaragua's Ortega says crisis is God punishing U.S", "Presidente de la CSJ de Nicaragua tilda de "ilegal" reelecciÃ³n de Ortega", "NICARAGUA: LA IGLESIA, CONTRA LA REELECCIÃN "ILEGAL" DE ORTEGA", "NÃºÃ±ez: "ReelecciÃ³n ilegal de Ortega aumenta persecuciÃ³n contra sociedad civil, Nicaragua brings in abortion ban: Nicaraguan President Enrique BolaÃ±os has signed into law a ban on all abortions, even in cases when a woman's life is judged to be at risk, Abortion Outlawed in Nicaragua Ten Days Before Controversial Elections, "Nicaragua electoral body confirms Ortega win â Americas", "Nicaragua: Ortega allowed to run for third successive term", "Nicaragua Country report/Freedom of the Press/2016", "Nicaragua suppresses opposition to ensure one-party election, critics say", "Nicaragua's President Picks Wife as Running Mate", "Nicaragua's Ortega re-elected president", "Nicaragua's president Daniel Ortega hasn't been seen in a month", "During pandemic, Nicaraguan doctors face political pressure", "Peaceful Protests against Nicaraguan Social Security Reforms Violently Repressed", "Nicaragua Roiled by Protests Over Social Security Benefits", "Facing censorship, Nicaraguan journalists and citizens turn to social media", "Amidst unrest, Nicaraguan journalists use digital innovation to share information", "In Nicaragua, the political battle is moving from the streets to the negotiating table", "As Nicaragua Death Toll Grows, Support for Ortega Slips", "Nicaragua Protests Grow Increasingly Violent, 100 Killed Since April", "Protests on Nicaragua's Mother's Day turn deadly", "Nicaragua: Violent attack on mass Mother's Day march in Managua", "Estados Unidos condena masacre del DÃa de las Madres y pide una investigaciÃ³n inmediata", "Nicaragua: US Should Sanction President Ortega", "Daniel Ortega set for Nicaragua election victory but heroic sheen wearing off", Nicaragua in 2010 compared to Nicaragua in 2006: the concrete achievements of Daniel Ortega's government, "Labour rights improve under Ortega government", "Daniel Ortega and Nicaragua's Soft Authoritarianism", "Nicaragua Under Daniel Ortega's Second Presidency: Daniel-Style Politics as Usual? Ortega emphasized peace and reconciliation in his campaign, and selected a former Contra leader, Jaime Morales Corazo, as his running mate.  Observers from the Organization of American States were expelled after releasing a critical investigative report of the government's response to the uprising.  Ortega adopted stepdaughter ZoilamÃ©rica NarvÃ¡ez in 1986, through a court case. However, he didn’t mention anything about guaranteeing that these elections be free and transparent, and open to observation. His government was beset by violent opposition from US-backed rebels (known as the Contras). 1 decade ago. In 1984, Ortega won Nicaragua's free and fair presidential election with over 60% of the vote as the FSLN's candidate. , According to Tim Rogers, until the 2018 unrest, as president Ortega presided over "the fastest-growing economy in Central America" and was a "poster child for foreign investment and citizen security in a region known for gangs and unrest". , Ortega's administration forced displacement of many of the indigenous population: 10,000 individuals had been moved by 1982.  The opposition claimed that marked ballots were dumped and destroyed, that party members were refused access to some of the vote counts and that tallies from many polling places were altered. A man in a face mask walks by a mural depicting Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega in Managua.  At the time, Ortega spoke truthfully when he denied Sandinista involvement in neighboring countries. Furthermore, he noted that the scheduled 2021 presidential elections in Nicaragua are now one year away. Relevance. , On March 6, 2008, following the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis, Ortega announced that Nicaragua was breaking diplomatic ties with Colombia "in solidarity with the Ecuadorian people". The next presidential elections will take place soon and the political campaigns are heating up with even some commentary … Who is the current president of nicaragua? President Daniel Ortega, who for years had consolidated power through nepotism and graft, maintained popular support by administering welfare programs for the nation’s poor.  Upon release in 1974, he was exiled to Cuba, where he received training in guerrilla warfare from Fidel Castro's MarxistâLeninist government. 0 1 1. These were known collectively as the Contras.  By July 2019 the international human rights organization Human Rights Watch called on the United States to impose sanctions on Ortega "and other top" Nicaraguan officials "implicated" in the crackdown on protests. , In June 2008 the Nicaraguan Supreme Court disqualified the MRS and the Conservative Party from participation in municipal elections. In later years, Ortega's previously far left politics moderated more and more, pursuing pro-business policies and even rapprochement with the Catholic Church, with the adoption of strong anti-abortion policies by his government in the 2000s, and adoption of strong religious rhetoric by the previously atheist Ortega. Gangs of masked men loot and burn shops with impunity. Anderson, Leslie E. and Lawrence C. Dodd, Learning Democracy: Citizen Engagement and Electoral Choice in Nicaragua, 1990-2001, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2005, esp Chapter 3. On March 15, 1982, the Junta declared a state of siege, which allowed it to close independent radio stations, suspend the right of association, and limit the freedom of trade unions. Their campaign to exile, jail, or kill anyone considered to be in opposition has led to a significant flow of … 56â7, 63â7, a chapter excerpted from his Nicaragua: Das blutende Herz Amerikas (Piper, 1986). On May 25, 2008, Ortega, upon learning of the death of FARC guerrilla leader Manuel Marulanda in Colombia, expressed condolences to the family of Marulanda and solidarity with the FARC and called Marulanda an extraordinary fighter who battled against profound inequalities in Colombia. Born in La Libertad, Nicaragua, on November 11, 1945, to middle-class parents who were actively opposed to Nicaraguas dictator, Anastasio Somoza, Ortega was first arrested for his political activities at the age of 15. He was put in charge of its urban guerrilla wing in 1967. Nicaragua police clash with protesters urging president to quit. Moreover, Nicaragua rejected projects of mining of the Canadian group B2 Gold which could represent a threat to the environment.  Murillo serves as the Ortega government's spokeswoman and a government minister, among other positions. Alma Guillermoprieto, The Heart That Bleeds: Latin America Now, pp.  Contrary to what most observers expected, Chamorro shocked Ortega and won the election. , From July 19â21, 1991, the FSLN held a National Congress to mend the rifts between members and form a new overarching political program. 7 Answers. After the overthrow and exile of Somoza's government, Ortega became leader of the ruling multi-partisan Junta of National Reconstruction. , Ortega attended the swearing-in ceremony of NicolÃ¡s Maduro for his second term on January 10, 2019.  Many Nicaraguans, including prominent former Sandinista leaders, such as Daniel Ortega's own brother Humberto Ortega, have accused him of forgetting where he came from and catering to his own capitalist interests, calling his government monopolistic and authoritarian and denouncing him as a "Bloody Dictator". , Ortega married Rosario Murillo in 1979 in a secret ceremony. âThis is starting to look more like Syria than Caracas,â one Nicaraguan business leader told me. Police have fired tear gas and rubber bullets at anti-government protesters in Nicaragua, injuring two people. In 1981, United States President Ronald Reagan accused the FSLN of joining with Soviet-backed Cuba in supporting Marxist revolutionary movements in other Latin American countries, such as El Salvador.  Ortega took a very hard line against opposition to his policies: On February 21, 1981, the Sandinista army killed 7 Miskito Indians and wounded 17. The result was a cruel and costly civil war that in 1989 compelled the Sandinistas to accept a peace arrangement negotiated by Costa Rican President Oscar Arias Sanchez.  In office, he made alliances with fellow Latin American socialists, such as Venezuelan President Hugo ChÃ¡vez. Anthropologist Gilles Bataillon termed this "politics of ethnocide" in Nicaragua. , In the late 1970s, divisions over the FSLN's campaign against Somoza led Ortega and his brother Humberto to form the Insurrectionist, or Tercerista (Third Way) faction. In April 2018, the people of Nicaragua peacefully took to the streets to protest lack of democracy and rule of law. Ortega relinquished the presidency the following April. , During the Libyan Civil War, Ortega was among the very few leaders who spoke out in clear defense of the embattled Muammar Gaddafi.  By 1982, the World Health Organization deemed Nicaragua a model for primary health care.. , In the 1996 campaign, Ortega faced the Liberal Alliance (Alianza Liberal), headed by Arnoldo Aleman Lacayo, a former mayor of Managua. President Daniel Ortega and his wife, Vice President Rosario Murillo, responded with violent and brutal repression that left hundreds dead and thousands wounded. Daniel Ortega is the current president of Nicaragua. There he received several months of guerrilla training. Most recently, he has been in the news in connection with accusations of sexual abuse by a female member of his family.  The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks doomed Ortega's chances, as the threat of a U.S. invasion became an issue. Under Ortega's leadership, Nicaragua joined the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas.  A MarxistâLeninist, Ortega pursued a program of nationalization, land reform, wealth redistribution and literacy programs during his first period in office. , Thirty-three per cent of the Nicaraguan voters cast ballots for one of six opposition partiesâthree to the right of the Sandinistas, three to the leftâwhich had campaigned with the aid of government funds and free T.V. Nicaragua’s official presidential residence used to be the Casa Presidencial, which was funded by the Taiwanese government. The UNESCO awarded Nicaragua the Nadezhda K. Krupskaya prize in recognition of its efforts. These figures are disputed, as many "unteachable" illiterates were omitted from the statistics, and many people declared literate were found to be unable to read or write a simple sentence. This illegal intervention continued (albeit covertly) after Ortega's democratic election as president in 1984. Ortega hasn’t … A leader in the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Spanish: Frente Sandinista de LiberaciÃ³n Nacional; FSLN), he implemented policies to achieve leftist reforms across Nicaragua.  The Sandinista nationalization efforts affected mostly banks and industries owned by the extended Somoza family. , Ortega was first arrested for political activities at the age of 15, and quickly joined the then-underground Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). The officeholder is recognized as the Chief of State and Head of Government. Nicaragua declines to confront a pandemic. Although billed[by whom?] In 2006, Daniel Ortega was elected president with 38% of the vote. Nicaragua's Permanent Commission on Human Rights condemned Sandinista human rights violations, accusing them of killing and forcibly disappearing thousands of persons in the first few years of the war. But he did not do so. In the November 2001 general elections, Ortega lost his third successive presidential election, this time to Enrique BolaÃ±os of the Constitutionalist Liberal Party.  The relations were restored with the resolution at a Rio Group summit held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, on March 7, 2008. Joining the Sandinistas as a student in 1963, Ortega became involved with urban resistance activities and was arrested and imprisoned in 1967. , When Somoza was overthrown by the FSLN in July 1979, Ortega became a member of the five-person Junta of National Reconstruction, which included Sandinista militant MoisÃ©s Hassan, novelist Sergio RamÃrez, businessman Alfonso Robelo, and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, the widow of a murdered journalist. Answer Save. After sealing the agreement in January 2000, the two parties controlled the three key institutions of the state: the Comptroller General of the Republic, the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Electoral Council. Ortega was in prison until 1974. He continued to be an important figure in Nicaraguan opposition politics. This article is more than 1 year old. , For more details on Ortega's past presidency, see, Current heads of state in Central American countries, Baumeister, Eduardo. " Since the start of his second presidency, various measures have been introduced to combat hunger and to improve access to healthcare, education, credit, and social security. (At the start of the pandemic, Ortega was out of the public eye for "more than 40 days", and no explanation was given for his absence when he returned.  Ortega placed the first lady, Rosario Murillo, in charge of the Citizensâ Power Councils (CPCs), designed to implement his anti-poverty social policies. , At the 1984 general election Ortega won the presidency with 67% of the vote and took office on January 10, 1985. Some members adopted more pragmatic positions, and sought to transform the FSLN into a modern social democratic party engaged in national reconciliation and class cooperation. When Somoza was overthrown by the FSLN in July 1979, Ortega became a member of the five-person Junta of National Reconstruction, which included Sandinista militant Moisés Hassan, novelist Sergio Ramírez, businessman Alfonso Robelo, and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, the widow of a murdered journalist. The handshakes, broadcast live throughout Latin America, appeared to signal that a week of military buildups and diplomatic repercussions was over. They arranged to redistribute 20,000 square kilometres (5 million acres) of land to about 100,000 families; launched a literacy drive, and made health care improvements that ended polio through mass vaccinations, and reduced the frequency of other treatable diseases. But cutting ties with Taipei was a sad and painful decision because of the friendship between Nicaragua and Taiwan's people and government. He later returned secretly to Nicaragua. These have been the demands of the Nicaraguan opposition. Most foreign and independent observers noted this pluralism in debunking the Reagan administration chargeâubiquitous in the US mediaâthat it was a "Soviet-style sham" election. La fonction de président de la République du Nicaragua fut créée par Constitution de 1854. His parents, Daniel Ortega Cerda and Lidia Saavedra, were opposed to the regime of Anastasio Somoza Debayle. Daniel Ortega, in full José Daniel Ortega Saavedra, (born November 11, 1945, La Libertad, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan guerrilla leader, member of the Sandinista junta that took power in 1979, and the elected president of Nicaragua (1984–90, 2007– ). In 1991, Ortega claimed elections were âan instrument to reaffirmâ the FSLN's âpolitical and ideological positions,â and also âconfront capitalism.â However, the electoral loss led to pronounced divisions in the FSLN. Police hunt students like enemy combatants.  Despite attempts by Ortega's government to hide the incident through censorship of all private-owned news outlets, photos and videos of the violence made their way to social media where they sparked outrage and urged more Nicaraguans to join in on the protests. Stay on top of Nicaragua latest developments on the ground with Al Jazeera’s fact-based news, exclusive video footage, photos and updated maps.  This led many commentators to assume that Nicaraguans voted against the Sandinistas out of fear of a continuation of the contra war and economic deprivation.  Reagan thus maintained that he was justified to continue supporting what he referred to as the Contras' "democratic resistance".  The opposition coalition had called the election a "farce" and had called for the boycott of the election. He told collaborators that they should be killed if they did not take part in the robbery. Born in La Libertad, Nicaragua, on November 11, 1945, to middle-class parents who were actively opposed to Nicaragua’s dictator, Anastasio Somoza, Ortega was first arrested for his political activities at the age of 15.  But by October 22, the Sandinistas signed an accord with opposition parties to reform electoral and campaign laws, making the process more fair and transparent. They donât allow suggestions, and you canât question anything because theyâre watching. Nissan President, luxury car manufactured by Nissan; Studebaker President, a luxury car made by Studebaker; Film and television.  Although the U.S. initially supplied the ruined post-revolution Nicaragua with economic aid, relations quickly soured. ", "Nicaragua breaks diplomatic relations with Colombia", "Nicaragua breaks off relations with Colombian gov't", "Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela Agree to End Border Crisis", "Colombian rebels' loss of leader ends an era", "Ortega expresa condolencias a FARC por muerte lÃder", "Nicaragua recognizes South Ossetia and Abkhazia", "Abkhazia, S. Ossetia may soon open embassies in Nicaragua", "Ma Ying-jeou shouldn't meet Daniel Ortega", "U.S. adds three nations to drug-traffic-hub list â Americas â MiamiHerald.com", "syriatimes.sy - Nicaragua's Ortega Congratulates President Al-Assad on Winning Elections", "Daniel Ortega dice que le gustarÃa que Bernie Sanders ganara las elecciones presidenciales de 2020", "Le Salvador devient le premier pays au monde Ã interdire les mines de mÃ©taux", "Nicaragua Didn't Sign the Paris Agreement Because It Didn't Go Far Enough", "Ortega's repressive regime cannot survive â even his younger brother, a former Sandinista leader, says so", "Nicaragua abandons social security changes after dozens killed in riots", Zoilamerica Narvaez 48-page testimony about sexual abuse, Zoilamerica Narvaez 48-page testimony about sexual abuse (in English), "As Nicaragua's first couple consolidates power, a daughter fears for her country", An Ugly Family Affair: Charges of sexual abuse leveled against Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega swirl atop a power struggle, "Nicaragua's President Accused of Sex Abuse by His Stepdaughter", "Ortega faces sex abuse case from his stepdaughter", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Daniel_Ortega&oldid=993951993, Sandinista National Liberation Front politicians, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from September 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2016, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, ÐÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÑÑÐºÐ°Ñ (ÑÐ°ÑÐ°ÑÐºÐµÐ²ÑÑÐ°)â, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 10:41.  The Indians formed two rebel groups â the Misura and Misurasata. Ortega played a crucial role in forming the Insurrectionist faction, which united the FSLN and sparked the mass uprisings of 1978â1979, culminating in the Nicaraguan Revolution.  Following the 2016 election, NarvÃ¡ez continued to make the accusations saying that she had become an outcast of her family. The couple has eight children, three of them together. Americas. The ROC increased its investment in Nicaragua.  Altogether, these policies have helped to reduce high levels of poverty and inequality in Nicaragua. as a measure to ensure stability, critics[which?] , Ortega ran for election again, in October 1996 and November 2001, but lost on both occasions to Arnoldo AlemÃ¡n and Enrique BolaÃ±os, respectively. REUTERS/Rodrigo Arangua/Pool - 2CRBXR0 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Ortega was elected with 287 to Ruiz's 147 votes, and the DL secured the most dominant role in the FSLN.  He also said God was punishing the United States with the financial crisis for trying to impose its economic principles on poor countries. In 2010, several liberal congressmen raised accusations about the FSLN presumably attempting to buy votes to pass constitutional reforms that would allow Ortega to run for office for the 6th time since 1984. , For this decision, the Sandinista magistrates formed the required quorum by excluding the opposition magistrates and replacing them with Sandinista substitutes, violating the Nicaraguan constitution. Despite US opposition, disarmament of the contras began in 1989.  16 were killed, and 88 injured, as "police sprayed the crowd with bullets, government sharpshooters positioned on the roof of the national baseball stadium went headhunting with sniper rifles".. By June 2018 Tim Rogers of The Atlantic magazine described the situation: Over the past seven weeks, Ortegaâs police and paramilitaries have killed more than 120 people, mostly students and other young protesters who are demanding the presidentâs ouster and a return to democracy, according to a human-rights group [CENIDH, Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights]. In these elections, a key issue was the allegation of corruption.  As the only member of the FSLN National Directorate in the Junta, he was the effective leader of the country. We are breaking relations with the terrorist policy practiced by Ãlvaro Uribe's government". Once the main collective leadership body of the party, with nine members, the DN no longer met routinely, and only three historic members remained. , The FSLN came to dominate the junta, Robelo and Chamorro resigned, and in 1981 Ortega became the coordinator of the Junta. The effort failed to unite the party, and intense debates over the internal governance of the FSLN continued. The Sandinistas softened their anti-imperialist rhetoric, with Ortega calling the U.S. âour great neighbor,â and vowing to cooperate âwithin a framework of respect, equality, and justice.â The image change failed, as Aleman's Liberal Alliance came first with 51.03% of the vote, while Ortega's FSLN secured 37.75%. After the handshakes, Ortega said he would re-establish diplomatic ties with Colombia.  The tactics used by the Sandinista government to fight the Contras have been widely condemned for their suppression of civil rights. charged that the amendments threatened Nicaraguan democracy. Nevertheless, according to the BBC, Ortega was the most popular candidate by far, possibly due to Nicaragua's stable economic growth and lack of violence compared to its neighbours El Salvador and Honduras in recent years. , By December 322 people were dead and 565 imprisoned. Nicaragua president picks wife as his vice presidential running mate.  Ramirez had served as chief of the FSLN's parliamentary caucus since 1990, but Ortega came to oppose his actions in the National Assembly, setting the stage for Ramirez's removal. Born into a working-class family, from an early age Ortega opposed Nicaragua's dictator, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, and became involved in the underground movement against his government. , On September 9, 1994, Ortega gained more power after taking over Sergio Ramirez's seat in the Asamblea Sandinista (Sandinista Assembly). Nicaragua's president Daniel Ortega to stand firm despite violence. Enrique Bolaños.  The main organization of Nicaraguan big business was composed of prosperous families from the Pacific coast cities, who dominated commerce and banking.  After his release from detainment, Ortega arranged the assassination of his torturer, Guardsman Gonzalo Lacayo, in August 1967. Ortega and his two brothers, grew up to become revolutionaries. One of the key accords of the pact was to lower the ratio necessary to win a presidential election in the first round from 45% to 35%, a change in electoral law that would become decisive in Ortega's favor in the 2006 elections.  "El Pacto," as it is known in Nicaragua, is said to have personally benefited former presidents Ortega and AlemÃ¡n greatly, while constraining then-president BolaÃ±os.  Opposing parties, the church and human rights groups in Nicaragua denounced the decision. See also Robert S. Leiken, "The Nicaraguan Tangle". , He was imprisoned in 1967 for taking part in armed robbery of a branch of the Bank of America. ", "Inter Press Service - News and Views from the Global South", "Second Coming of the Sandinistas turns sour", "Nicaragua: FSLN victory in November will permit change | Scoop News", "Re-election for Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, continent's poorest nation â MercoPress", "Nicaragua: 21st century Sandinismo â or losing the revolution?  The Ortega brothers forged alliances with a wide array of anti-Somoza forces, including Catholic and Protestant activists, and other non-Marxist civil society groups. , In Nicaragua, reviews of Ortega's presidency have not always been glowing, with many considering him a dictator.  Instances of intimidation, violence, and harassment of opposition political party members and NGO representatives have been recorded. In 1990, thanks to U.S. and U.N. pressure, Nicaragua held a free election — and voters chose Violeta Chamorro as president. Obituaries.  During the election, the Supreme Electoral Council (CSE) blocked both domestic and international poll observers from multiple polling stations. Four of the remaining five are controlled by Mexican mogul Ãngel GonzÃ¡lez, and are generally considered to be aligned with Ortega's ruling FSLN party.  In the weeks before the November election, Ortega gave a U.N. speech denouncing talks held in Rio de Janeiro on electoral reform. However the same unpopular decree which "unilaterally overhauling the social-security tax system" (mentioned below) and precipitated the unrest in April 2018, also broke Ortega's arrangement with COSEP, and along with US sanctions, brought a sharp economic drop that as of mid-2020 is still "crippling" Nicaragua's economy. The president of Nicaragua, officially known as the president of the Republic of Nicaragua, is the head of state of Nicaragua. Nicaragua’s Ruling Sandinistas Fall Victim to Covid-19, Highlighting the Disease’s Spread.  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