Grasses are unusual in that the meristem is near the bottom of the plant; hence, grasses can quickly recover from cropping at the top. Lemongrass is a grass used as a culinary herb for its citrus-like flavor and scent. The rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα (póa, "fodder"). Massive swarms of locusts are sweeping across South Asia, the Middle East and the Horn of Africa. Paleozoic events in the continental nuclei, Mesozoic events in the continental nuclei, Mesozoic events in the circum-Pacific orogenic belts, Cenozoic events in the Alpide plate boundary zone and in the Arabian and Indian cratons, Cenozoic events in the island arcs and the marginal basins, Prehistoric centres and ancient migrations. The current outbreak is the worst in recent decades. [26] See the full list of Poaceae genera. [7] Grasses are also an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands, forests and tundra. [23] Larger bamboos and Arundo donax have stout culms that can be used in a manner similar to timber, Arundo is used to make reeds for woodwind instruments, and bamboo is used for innumerable implements. In tennis, grass is grown on very hard-packed soil, and the bounce of a tennis ball may vary depending on the grass's health, how recently it has been mowed, and the wear and tear of recent play. Anthers detached from a meadow foxtail flower, "Grass" redirects here. [citation needed] Among the world's most prestigious court for grass tennis is Centre Court at Wimbledon, London which hosts the final of the annual Wimbledon Championships in England, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Trees eventually outcompete most grasses. Many types of animals eat grass as their main source of food, and are called graminivores – these include cattle, sheep, horses, rabbits and many invertebrates, such as grasshoppers and the caterpillars of many brown butterflies. Of the principal crops cultivated, rice, sugarcane, and, in Central Asia, sugar beets require the most water. They provide, through direct human consumption, just over one-half (51%) of all dietary energy; rice provides 20%, wheat supplies 20%, maize (corn) 5.5%, and other grains 6%. Bamboo shoots are used in numerous Asian dishes and broths, and are available in supermarkets in various sliced forms, in both fresh, fermented and canned versions. There are about 12,000 grass species in about 771 genera that are classified into 12 subfamilies. Buckwheat Goosefoot / Amaranth Family (family: Chenopodiacae / Amaranthaceae) Pseudocereals are foods that can be used like grains, but come from plants that aren't related to the Grass Family. Nepal is richly endowed with agro-biodiversity. [19] The perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules,[17]:11 that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea; these are generally interpreted to be modified sepals. Asia - Asia - Agriculture: By far the greater part of Asia remains uncultivated, primarily because climatic and soil conditions are unfavourable. Here's a link that briefly describes some of the important features that can be used to distinguish members of this group: http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/angio.htm One important distinction within the Angiosperms are the classes commonly called monocots and dicots. The Poaceae are the world’s single most important source of food. Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms. They also occur as a smaller part of the vegetation in almost every other terrestrial habitat. Nepal is an agricultural country having 66 percent people directly engaged in farming. [13], Wu, You & Li (2018) described grass microfossils extracted from a specimen of the hadrosauroid dinosaur Equijubus normani from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Zhonggou Formation (China), which were found to belong to primitive lineages within Poaceae, similar in position to the Anomochlooideae. The latter are commonly referred to collectively as grass. Most characteristic of developing countries. In some sports facilities, including indoor domes and other places where maintenance of a grass field would be difficult, grass may be replaced with artificial turf, a synthetic grass-like substitute. Grain is the harvested seed of grasses such as wheat, oats, rice, and corn.Other important grains include sorghum, millet, rye, and barley.Around the globe, grains, also called cereals, are the most important staple food. Sustainable Agriculture Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides. The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as feed for meat-producing animals. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species,[4] the Poaceae is the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae.[5]. grains that are the worlds major food crops. [17]:12 The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. Grass surfaces are also sometimes used for horse racing and tennis. [25] Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption … The stems of grasses, called culms, are usually cylindrical (more rarely flattened, but not 3-angled) and are hollow, plugged at the nodes, where the leaves are attached. In fact, if all foods are considered together, enough is available to provide at least 4.3 pounds of food per person a day. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath. Legumes, root crops, and cereals other than rice can be grown even on land watered only by natural precipitation. King argued that this was the result of more slowly acting surface wash caused by carpets of grass which in turn would have resulted in relatively more soil creep. a grass that yields grain for food. Crops that grow in Asia include rice, wheat, barley and tropical fruits such as litchi and pineapple. The flowers are usually hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and mainly anemophilous or wind-pollinated, although insects occasionally play a role. Celery seed is also used as a spice and its extracts have been used in herbal medicine In communities with drought problems, watering of lawns may be restricted to certain times of day or days of the week. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. [23] Grasslands include pampas, steppes, and prairies. In some places, particularly in suburban areas, the maintenance of a grass lawn is a sign of a homeowner's responsibility to the overall appearance of their neighborhood. [6] Some members of the Poaceae are used as building materials (bamboo, thatch, and straw); others can provide a source of biofuel, primarily via the conversion of maize to ethanol. ... rain washes the ashes into the soil to provide needed nutrients. Asia, America, and Europe produce more than 80 percent of the world’s cereal grains. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a member of the grass family and it is a primary cereal grain that is cultivated throughout the world in regions with temperate climates. [citation needed], Phragmites australis (common reed) is important for thatching and grass roots stabilize the sod of sod houses. Rice, maize, millet, wheat, barley and buckwheat are the major staple food crops. There are hundreds of different crops grown for food around the world. Origins of agriculture - Origins of agriculture - Agriculture in ancient Asia: On his way across the Pamirs in search of Buddhist texts (518 ce), the Chinese pilgrim Song Yun noted that the crest of the bare, cold, snowy highlands was commonly believed to be “the middle point of heaven and earth”: Yet, heaven provided. [citation needed] Grass lawns are an important covering of playing surfaces in many sports, including football (soccer), American football, tennis, golf, cricket, softball and baseball. The term pulse, as used by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), is reserved for legume crops harvested solely for the dry seed. The lower part of each leaf encloses the stem, forming a leaf-sheath. [29], In cricket, the pitch is the strip of carefully mowed and rolled grass where the bowler bowls. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. Bananas resistant to bacterial wilt and nematodes Genetically modified bananas resistant to bacterial wilt are shown on the left (image A), while Non-GM bananas are shown on the right. The primary ingredient of beer is usually barley or wheat, both of which have been used for this purpose for over 4,000 years. An agricultural society, 90% of the Maya population were involved in farming. Grass on the putting green is the shortest and most even, ideally allowing the ball to roll smoothly over the surface. For the Maya, reliable food production was so important to their well-being that they closely linked the agricultural cycle to astronomy and religion. Such grasses may be cut and stored for later feeding, especially for the winter, in the form of bales of hay or straw, or in silos as silage. Additional food uses of sugarcane include sprouted grain, shoots, and rhizomes, and in drink they include sugarcane juice and plant milk, as well as rum, beer, whisky, and vodka. Paul Robbins and Julie T. Sharp, "Producing and Consuming Chemicals: The Moral Economy of the American Lawn", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Cricket pitch § Preparation and maintenance of the playing area, "Dinosaur-associated Poaceae epidermis and phytoliths from the Early Cretaceous of China", "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", "The Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III", "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase", "Late Cretaceous origin of the rice tribe provides evidence for early diversification in Poaceae", 10.1130/0016-7606(1953)64[721:COLE]2.0.CO;2, "Pats sign Testaverde; Gillette Stadium's grass field replaced with Field Turf - USATODAY.com", "Cricket pitches Principles and practice of pitch preparation", The Introductory Reader in Human Geography, "Lawn Sprinkling Regulations in Metro Vancouver, BC, Canada", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Poaceae&oldid=993814781, Extant Early Cretaceous first appearances, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles needing additional references from March 2016, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Many species of grass are grown as pasture for foraging or as fodder for prescribed livestock feeds, particularly in the case of cattle, horses, and sheep. sugar beets. [33], The smell of the freshly cut grass is produced mainly by cis-3-Hexenal.[34]. The leaf grows from the base of the blade, an adaptation allowing it to cope with frequent grazing. Wheat is among the oldest of the cultivated food crops. Sugarcane is the major source of sugar production. [citation needed] Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. "The grass is always greener on the other side" suggests an alternate state of affairs will always seem preferable to one's own. The C4 grasses have a photosynthetic pathway, linked to specialized Kranz leaf anatomy, which allows for increased water use efficiency, rendering them better adapted to hot, arid environments. Grass on the fairway is mown short and even, allowing the player to strike the ball cleanly. "We usually have food all year round and surplus to sell. Grass fiber can be used for making paper, and for biofuel production. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. ... and Southeast Asia, rice is the most suitable crop for production in tropical climates. According to Lester Charles King the spread of grasses in the Late Cenozoic would have changed patterns of hillslope evolution favouring slopes that are convex upslope and concave downslope and lacking a free face were common. [citation needed] They became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, and fossilized dinosaur dung (coprolites) have been found containing phytoliths of a variety that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Management of land an… Playing from the rough is a disadvantage because the long grass may affect the flight of the ball. 18. Wheat, rice, sorghum, and millet are produced in large quantities in Asia; corn and sorghum are principal crops in America, and barley, oats and rye are major crops in the … Poaceae (/ p oʊ ˈ eɪ s i aɪ /) or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses.It includes the cereal … The table on the following pages lists several vegetables, herbs, fruit, cut flowers, bedding plants, cover crops and weeds by plant family. Agrarian Structure. The name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895,[8]:7 based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, and the type genus Poa described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. [17]:11, Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having one or more florets. A grass flower head (meadow foxtail) showing the plain-coloured flowers with large anthers. Most people in Asia are farmers, owning an average of about 2.5 acres (1 hectare) of land per family. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes.. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits (plantains, breadfruit, etc.) the leading crop in the world, maize is grown primarily for purposes other than direct human consumption, especially as animal feed. Straw (and sometimes hay) may also be used as bedding for animals. Asia - Asia - Trade: In ancient times, regions of Asia had commercial relations among themselves as well as with parts of Europe and Africa. [citation needed]. Rice is the major crop for the majority of Asia, with the continent producing 90 percent of the rice used throughout the world. In most Asian countries, particularly in the low income countries of South Asia, per-capita food availability has risen. The C3 grasses are referred to as "cool-season" grasses, while the C4 plants are considered "warm-season" grasses. [17]:16 In the earliest days nomadic peoples traded over considerable distances, using barter as the medium of exchange. Grasses are used as raw material for a multitude of purposes, including construction and in the composition of building materials such as cob, for insulation, in the manufacture of paper and board such as Oriented structural straw board. Grasses are also used in the manufacture of thatch, paper, fuel, clothing, insulation, timber for fencing, furniture, scaffolding and construction materials, floor matting, sports turf and baskets. [citation needed] Reeds are used in water treatment systems, in wetland conservation and land reclamation in Afro-Eurasia. A spikelet consists of two (or sometimes fewer) bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets. [9] Grasses have adapted to conditions in lush rain forests, dry deserts, cold mountains and even intertidal habitats, and are currently the most widespread plant type; grass is a valuable source of food and energy for all sorts of wildlife and organics. In the days leading up to the match it is repeatedly mowed and rolled to produce a very hard, flat surface for the ball to bounce off. One … The relationships among the three subfamilies Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae and Pooideae in the BOP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more closely related to each other than to Oryzoideae. [11][12] In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae due to findings from the same deposit suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya. Vietnam, Pakistan and Thailand are among the largest exporters of rice in Asia. These three main plants are wheat corn and rice, and are produced in grasslands all over the world. Industrialized Agriculture. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in lawns and pasture. Buckwheat Family (family: Polygonaceae) For more Buckwheat Family see the list of vegetables. Barley was among the first grains to be grown in Eurasia about 10,000 years ago. An entire industry revolves around the development and marketing of grass varieties for golf courses. The water from upstream storage reservoirs or diversion dams. [17]:11 Each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging the stem and a blade with entire (i.e., smooth) margins. [citation needed] Three general classifications of growth habit present in grasses: bunch-type (also called caespitose), stoloniferous, and rhizomatous. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. They are often used in natural landscaping, xeriscaping and slope stabilization in contemporary landscaping, wildlife gardening, and native plant gardening. Important rituals and ceremonies were held in honour of specialised workers; from beekeepers to fishermen, and maize, the all-important Mesoamerican staple, even had its own god. [17]:11 The leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals; some, such as sword grass, are sharp enough to cut human skin. Mosaic mines, produces and distributes millions of tonnes of high quality potash and phosphates products each year. The grass family is one of the most widely distributed and abundant groups of plants on Earth. maize. Type of maintenance and species of grass used may be important factors for some sports, less critical for others. The evolution of large grazing animals in the Cenozoic contributed to the spread of grasses. Trampling grazers kill seedling trees but not grasses.[20]:137. If only large, contiguous areas of grasslands are counted, these biomes cover 31% of the planet's land. During pruning, the chopped branches of acacia trees are usually used as manure to fertilise the soil. For example: A folk myth about grass is that it refuses to grow where any violent death has occurred. [27] Three cereals—rice, wheat, and maize (corn)—provide more than half of all calories consumed by humans. [35], Leaves of Poa trivialis showing the ligules, Bamboo stem and leaves, nodes are evident, Illustration depicting both staminate and pistillate flowers of maize (Zea mays). Conversely, in the best growing areas an extraordinarily intensive agriculture is practiced, made possible by irrigating the alluvial soils of the great river deltas and valleys. [citation needed] The surface is softer than hard courts and clay (other tennis surfaces), so the ball bounces lower, and players must reach the ball faster resulting in a different style of play which may suit some players more than others. Agricultural grasses grown for their edible seeds are called cereals or grains (although the latter term, agriculturally, refers to both cereals and legumes). Findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites from the latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) aged Lameta Formation of India have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago. For example, members of the Fabaceae (legume family) can be grown to add nitrogen to the soil and many members of the Liliaceae are heavy users of potassium. ... popular human snack food but also a major oil crop - … a form of subsistence agriculture characterized of asia's major population concentrations in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce … One work credits lawn maintenance to: ...the desire for upward mobility and its manifestation in the lawn. Humans get an average of 48 percent of their calories, or food energy, from grains. Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. [17]:18–19, Although the C4 species are all in the PACMAD clade (see diagram above), it seems that various forms of C4 have arisen some twenty or more times, in various subfamilies or genera. This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 17:10. Barley is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and malting. Without large grazers, fire-cleared areas are quickly colonized by grasses, and with enough rain, tree seedlings. member of the grass family; can grow 10 feet tall - sugar is collected from the stem. Perennial cool-season – orchardgrass (cocksfoot. Southwest Asia crop hearth: Barley, Einkorn wheat, emmer wheat, lentil, oats, rye, bread wheat, broad bean, olive ... it is designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family. 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Science of cultivating the soil food all year round and surplus to sell and land reclamation Afro-Eurasia!