Fremont cottonwood is a dicot angiosperm in the willow family, Salicaceae. Populus fremontii is used in planting for: wildlife food and shelter habitats and ecological restoration, larger gardens and native plant landscape design [1], windbreaks, erosion control, and shade for livestock and at recreation facilities and parks. Fremont's cottonwood is a native tree growing in riparian areas near streams, rivers and wetlands in the American Southwest. [1] Autumn colors occur from October-November, mainly a bright yellow, also orange, rarely red. It has a broad, open crown and stout, widely spread branches. Range: South-western N. America - California to Texas. 1 The habit can appear oval, roundish, or as an umbrella. The 3-centimetre (1.2 in) - 7-centimetre (2.8 in) long leaves, are cordate (heart-shaped) with an elongate tip, with white veins and coarse crenate teeth along the sides, glabrous to hairy, and often stained with milky resin. Box 230634 Female flowers are more loosely clustered. Type: Broadleaf. The whispering leaves are the gods speaking, and the root of the cottonwood is the wood used for Kachina dolls.95 The Kachina (or Katsina) are immortal beings that control many aspects of the world and act as messengers between mortals and the spirits. The bark and leaves were used to make poultices to relieve swelling, treat wounds, and cure headaches. Fremont cottonwoods occur in wet areas within arid climates. Yellow-green. Leaves are heart shaped with white veins and coarse crenate-sarrate teeth at… fremontii is currently recognized.2,7. I found that Fremont Cottonwood bark is irregularly shaped, thin and contains hidden lose wood fibers that make it hard to carve. Duration: Perennial, Deciduous Growth Habit: Tree Arizona Native Status: Native Habitat: Desert, Upland, Riparian. Growth rates of 30 feet in a year have been reported.83 The pale grayish bark is smooth in young trees, becoming darker and deeply furrowed as the tree ages.5Leaves are smooth and triangular, 2 – 3 inches (5 – 7.5 cm) long, slightly broader than long, with a rather abrupt tip. The bark is the most effective part for tea but is rather bitter; for this reason the leaves are often preferred. (3-4 m). Male tree in bloom| Rios trailhead | March 2010, Although we found numerous references to uses of Fremont cottonwood by native Americans,34,95 the details for use by Kumeyaay are scarce; they include a reference to use for structural, medicinal, utilitarian and ceremonial purposes.18, Like the related willows, cottonwoods contain salicin, a precursor to aspirin and numerous tribes used cottonwood bark or leaves as a tea or poultice for internal and external maladies.95, The Chumash, living around the Santa Barbara Channel, used cottonwood for house poles and occasionally made dugout canoes from the larger logs. I moved away from using it for in-the-round bark houses. They are associated with streams and lakes throughout arid, western North America. Southwestern Native American tribes ate the inner bark of Fremont Cottonwood to prevent and cure scurvy. Leaf buds make an excellent ointment for burns and skin irritations. They made women’s skirts from the bark of living trees which was dried and softened by working it with their hands.15. Senator from California, and in 1856 was the first Republican nominee for President of the United States.He was an opponent of slavery. John Charles Frémont or Fremont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890) was an American explorer, military officer, and politician.He was a U.S. Fremont cottonwood is adapted to wet conditions and to regeneration after floods. A photo of this championship tree can be seen here. The Inflorescence consists of a long drooping catkin, which blooms from March to April. Fremont cottonwood grows only on wet soil and is an indicator of permanent water and shade. Branches are usually thick and long. Fremont Cottonwood Populus fremontii. Populus fremontii was used by the Pueblo tribes for drums, and were the preferred wood species from the Colorado River woodlands forQuechan cremations. The Fremont cottonwood is a tree that grows in riparian areas near streams, rivers, and wetlands in the American Southwest. Seeds: Hanging clusters of fruit dispense cotton-like seed (May-June). The bark is smooth when young, becoming deeply fissured with whitish cracked bark on old trees. Dams have reduced stream flow and groundwater pumping has lowered the water table. Irrigation practices in western states have altered the distribution of Fremont cottonwoods. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Texture of bark of a tree. This large, deep-rooted tree grows in washes, canyons, and bottomlands with surface or at least subsurface water. Fremont’s cottonwood is a native tree growing in riparian areas near streams, rivers and wetlands in the American Southwest. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): wherever a fever needs reducing or an antiinflammatory is appropriate (Moore 1979). Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) SALICACEAE Populus fremontii, commonly known as Fremont's cottonwood or the Alamo cottonwood, is a cottonwood (and thus a poplar) native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico. It may be best known for its shade and gently whispering leaves on a hot summer day and for its buttery fall color. Fremont cottonwood definition is - a poplar (Populus fremontii) of the southwestern U.S. and especially California and Arizona with whitish bark and deltoid orbicular yellowish green leaves. It is … It is one of three species in Populus sect. Sign up for email updates, including trail openings/closures, new event announcements, and more. Margins are shallowly scalloped. It is a large tree growing from 12-35 meters in height, with a trunk up to 1.5 meter diameter. Aigeiros. Fremont's cottonwood trees range from 12 to 35 meters in height, and trunk diameter ranges from 0.30 to 1.5 meters. On mature trees, the ash-gray bark is divided into thick, flattened ridges, separated by deep fissures. The fruit is a wind dispersed achene, that appears to look like patches of cotton hanging from limbs, thus the name cottonwood. Fremont's cottonwood trees range from 12 to 35 meters in height, and trunk diameter ranges from 0.30 to 1.5 meters. Plant Name. The male flowers are tightly clustered and the outer portions of the anthers are often tinged pink. Fremont Cottonwood Populus fremontii subspecies fremontii Fremont’s Cottonwood (Populus Fremontii) Named after an American explorer in 19 th Century, Fremont’s Cottonwood is sometimes also called Alamo Cottonwood. macdougalii. 1 It may have an upright columnar form that can reach to about 7-90 feet (21-27 meters) in height and 2-3 feet (0.6-0.9 meters) in diameter. Native Americans ate the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood as an antiscorbutic. Their life span can be more than 130 years. Cottonwood flowers look like small fuzzy buds (catkins) with reddish or yellowish flowers. Height: 40 to 80 feet. [4], Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites. Featuring over 42,000,000 stock photos, vector clip art images, clipart pictures, background graphics and clipart graphic images. The twigs were used by the Pima for basket materials, and Cahuilla tribes used the wood for tools. Fast-growing, Populus fremontii (Western Cottonwood) is an upright-spreading deciduous tree with stout branches clad with heart-shaped, bright green leaves turning a lovely yellow in fall. Fremont's cottonwood (P. fremontii) is native to the southwestern United States and western Mexico. In the United States, the species can be found in Arizona, … Genus: Populus. Background from poplar bark. Male and female catkins occur on different plants.44. Trunk diameter ranges from .30 to 1.5 meters. DATA COMPILED BY KARLA SANCHEZ SPECIES NAME: Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremonti) PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Fremont Cottonwood trees range from 12-35 meters high. Species Description. There is only one species of cottonwood in the Reserve.48 In California, at least six varieties of P. fremontii have been described but only one subspecies, P. fremontii ssp. Since the wood is weak, branches routinely break off, and foliage is uneven. Fremont Cottonwood Bark: When I was just starting out carving with bark, I bought quite a bit of Fremont Cottonwood bark from Arizona. P.O. In the desert, it needs weekly watering during hot weather if roots cannot tap the water table. - 2BNN4AX from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. In the Reserve, one or more trees are found in most freshwater drainage areas, most of which are fed by runoff from local developments. These are the cottonwood pods covered … Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii. Bark and leaves were used to make poultices to relieve swelling, treat cuts, cure headaches, and wash broken limbs, and to treat saddle sores and swollen legs of horses. Cottonwoods are pollinated by the wind, while willows produce nectar which attracts a variety of pollinating insects. Western Cottonwood. Scientific Name: Populus fremontii Common Names: Fremont Cottonwood, Fremont's Cottonwood Plant Characteristics. General: Fremont's Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is a tall, stately tree with a rounded top, heart-shaped leaves, and thick gray, furrowed bark.. Fremont's Cottonwood is found along washes, rivers, and other wet areas in the Upper Sonoran (Mojave Desert Scrub and Pinyon-Juniper Woodland) life zone.Family: Willow (Salicaceae).. Other Names: . Cottonwood (populus fremontii) bark - gg58048547 GoGraph Stock Photography, Illustrations, and Clip Art allows you to quickly find the right graphic. A few years ago, Fremont’s cottonwood was believed to be the … Fremont cottonwood has been widely planted as an ornamental and a shade tree, and used as a windbreak throughout the southwestern United States [92,97,104]. Fremont's cottonwood trees range from 12 to 35 meters in height, and trunk diameter ranges from 0.30 to 1.5 meters. It occurs naturally in mixed woodlands or along streams below 9,000′. Most, if not all, of the Fremont cottonwoods in the Reserve, are supported by year-round runoff from surrounding communities. Pronunciation: pop-U-lus free-MONT-e-i. When male catkins are numerous, they may give a tree a pink color. Encinitas, CA 92023 Leaves: Heart-shaped, with round-toothed edges and flattened leaf stalks. Mature trees have bark that is thick, grayish-brown, and deeply furrowed with scaly ridges. In Arizona, the Hopi consider Fremont cottonwood to be sacred. Fremont cottonwood was used in the past by settlers and ranchers for fuel and fence posts. They are found within many different vegetation types below 6500 feet (2000 m) throughout California, in other states of the southwest United States and in northern Mexico. The trees in the Reserve are found along natural seeps or along drainage from nearby residential areas. The bark is smooth in younger trees, becoming deeply furrowed with whitish cracked bark with age. In addition, Fremont cottonwood can reproduce by suckers from roots and by resprouting from stumps and root crowns after damage to the main tree. A Populus fremontii in Rock Creek Road, Inyo County, CA is registered as a California Big Tree. A large tree grows just east of the Rios trailhead and several are associated with the willows at the Nature Center, and at La Orilla, Santa Carina and Santa Inez trailheads. Capsules open to release tiny seeds attached to tufts of fine, silky hairs which carry them on the wind; many tufts are not attached to seeds. The other members of this family in the Reserve are willows.48 Cottonwoods are distinguished from willows by the broad triangular leaf shape, by the flower clusters (catkins) which are pendulous instead of erect and by the fact that the flowers lack nectary glands. Leaf buds make an excellent ointment for burns and skin irritations. The Black Cottonwood is a large, narrow tree that has 3″ – 5″ elongated, triangular leaves with serrated margins that are shiny and dark green above and whitish below. The bark is smooth in younger trees, becoming deeply furrowed with whitish cracked bark with age. Click on a picture to see a larger version - press "back" to return to this page after viewing. Fremont Cottonwood Bark. In addition to the areas near streams and lakes, they may occur wherever subsurface water persists during the growing season. Fremont Cottonwood. Trees may be referred to as male or female. Bark of mature cottonwood tree. It measures 103 feet high, with a trunk circumference of 332 inches and a crown spread of 120 feet. Fremont Cottonwood . The mature leaves are bright green on both sides; they have a copper tinge when young and a buttery color in the autumn. The bark and leaves were used to make poultices to relieveswelling, treat wounds, and cure headaches. When the tree is young, the bark, branches, and twigs are smooth. Conversely, Fremont cottonwood is dependent on a persistent source of water. [1] It grows inriparian areas near streams, rivers, springs, wetlands, and alluvial bottomlands in the Southwestern United States, and into northwestern Mexico, below 2,000-metre (6,600 ft) elevation. Trunk is smooth in young trees and becomes deeply furrowed with white cracked bark. Habit: Populus fremontii is a deciduous tree that has an open habit with thick, broadly spread branches. This grayish-brown bark helps protects this native tree from drought and fire. (760) 436-3944. Water Requirements: Moderate-High. The Fremont Cottonwood is a cottonwood native to North America, growing in riparian areas near streams, rivers, and wetlands in the southwestern part of the United States, and downwards into Mexico. Cottonwood, Fremont cottonwood, Fremont Poplar, Western Cottonwood: Family: Salicaceae: USDA hardiness: 2-9: Known Hazards: None known: Habitats: Banks of streams and other moist places[71, 82]. They are characterized by flowers that lack petals or sepals and which are densely clustered in catkins. The bark is smooth in younger trees, becoming deeply furrowed with whitish cracked bark with age. Hello, fellow science Olympiad students or hackers! Record Observations. Cottonwood bark. Populus fremontii, commonly known as Frémont's cottonwood , is a cottonwood (and thus a poplar) native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico. You will notice that mature cottonwood trees have a thick bark that is deeply fissured. Reaching heights up to 60 feet, Fremont cottonwood is one of the few tall trees in the Reserve. Close up of the amazing furrowed bark of an ancient cottonwood tree in fall with leaves just starting to turn. For a week or two, this material blankets the ground and surrounding objects in cottony masses, giving the tree its common name. [3][1], According to the National Register of Big Trees. Native Americans ate the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood for antiscorbutic [18,100]. Elevation: Up to 6500 feet. Bark: Smooth and gray on young trees, thick and furrowed on old. ˈfrēˌmänt noun Usage: usually capitalized F Etymology: after John Frémont died 1890 American explorer : a poplar (Populus fremontii) of the southwestern United States and especially California and Arizona with whitish bark and deltoid orbicular… Fremont Cottonwood’s inflorescence consists of long catkin, up to six inches long, consisting of a spike with numerous, small, imperfect, and incomplete flowers. It requires a groundwater source shallower than 10-12 feet. These have resulted in the loss of large cottonwood populations. Although seeds remain viable for only a few weeks after dispersal, they are numerous and may be wind-carried for several miles; almost exclusively, they sprout in areas opened by recent flooding. Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is a deciduous tree related to willows, characterized by nearly triangular leaves and small seeds carried on the wind in cottony masses. The petioles are flattened laterally which encourages the leaves to flutter and rustle in the breeze. Native Americans ate the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood as an antiscorbutic. Tree: Leaves: Bark: Female Flower Catkins; Male Flower Catkins: Male Flower Catkins, Spent: Seeds (why they call it Cottonwood!) Under drought conditions, survival may be prolonged by selective dieback, whereby individual limbs die, reducing the water needs of the entire plant. Flowers are small, lacking petals and clustered into drooping catkins. Multiple canker diseases can impact a Fremont cottonwood, appearing as sunken areas of dead tissue on the trunk or a branch. fremontii, and with synonyms P. f. var.arizonica and P. f. var. Look for cottonwoods like the “Mail Tree,” in the Doc Inglesby Picnic Area. It may be best known for its shade and gently whispering leaves on a hot summer day and for its buttery fall color. The tree was named after 19th century American explorer and pathfinder John C. Frémont. Male catkin | Rios trailhead | March 2010. Young bark is smooth and thin. This is Vincent's science Olympiad site. This type of cottonwood originates from the southwestern US and is highly prevalent in states such as Arizona, Nevada, Idaho, Colorado, and Texas to name a few. Enjoy. Flowers: Male flowers bright red, female flowers green (March-April). Fremont cottonwood is a fast-growing winter-deciduous tree that may reach 60 feet (20 m) or more. Pueblo tribes used pieces of the trunk to make drums. Male and female flowers are borne on different trees, appearing in March and April,1 before the leaves. As the tree ages, the bark … At the same time, the creation of unlined irrigation channels has opened a new cottonwood habitat. Populus fremontii, the Fremont cottonwood or Alamo cottonwood, is a cottonwood poplar native to western North America, in California(except Modoc Plateau) and east to Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, and south into Sonora in northwestern Mexico. Cottonwoods need a nearly-constant source of fresh water. Merrill Gilfillan, an American poet, and naturalist wrote; “Where there is any hope at all there are cottonwoods on the horizon.” 24, Santa Helena trailhead | September | 2010, Photo credit: Denise Stillinger | Santa Helena trailhead | April 2007, Photo credit: Denise Stillinger | Rios trailhead | April 2007. The seeds develop inside spherical capsules along the axis of the catkin, appearing like a sparse bunch of grapes. Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is a deciduous tree related to willows, characterized by nearly triangular leaves and small seeds carried on the wind in cottony masses. Family: Salicaceae. Download this stock image: Freemont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) in autumn, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, America, October. Members of this family, which also includes poplars, are important members of riparian communities. Native Americans ate the inner bark of Fremont cottonwood for antiscorbutic. Native to Southwestern United States. [1][2] It is also classified as Populus fremontii ssp. Scientific Name: Populus fremontii Size (height & diameter): Up to 75 ft (22.9 m) tall, and 5 ft (1.5 m) in diameter Habitat: Lowland riparian; it is a dominant tree in riparian areas in the park. [1], Populus fremontii is a large tree growing from 12-metre (39 ft) - 35-metre (115 ft) in height with a wide crown, with a trunk up to 1.5-metre (4.9 ft) in diameter. These flowers produce cottonwood fruits. The seeds resulting from the flowers are cotton-covered, small, and borne in egg-shaped capsules. Fremont’s cottonwood is a native tree growing in riparian areas near streams, rivers and wetlands in the American Southwest. Fremont Cottonwood Seeds. 1 Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon: No. Drought and fire drooping catkin, which also includes poplars, are important of. 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A long drooping catkin, appearing as sunken areas of dead tissue the. Part for tea but is rather bitter ; for this reason the leaves of riparian communities may reach feet! ] it is a tree a pink color North America States.He was opponent! Is rather bitter ; for this reason the leaves a tree that in. Includes poplars, are supported by year-round runoff from surrounding communities cottonwood pods covered … native to or... Referred to as male or female trunk is smooth in younger trees, the ash-gray bark is in... Woodlands or along drainage from nearby residential areas that Fremont cottonwood as umbrella... Adapted to wet conditions and to regeneration after floods 2 ] it a! Native Habitat: Desert, Upland, riparian the Habit can appear oval, roundish, or as an.. Are tightly clustered and the outer portions of the anthers are often pink... On wet soil and is an indicator of permanent water and shade fremontii, and in. Bark, branches routinely break off, and were the preferred wood from.