Most flower and fruit, and have dazzling fall displays as the leaves change color. As the larva tunnels, the twig may break off or wilt behind it. Ovisacs are white, cottony masses that contain eggs. This damage may lead to further stress factors as the exposed trunk is prone to insect infestation. New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. Depending on the age of the Kousa dogwood, the trees take on a different appearance. Apply according to the label instructions. Dogwood Borer Damage at the Base of Flowering Dogwood. I definitely will put a barrier around it to keep it protected from another critter attack.I have called around to different tree nurseries and getting different answers -- either leave it alone or spray it to seal it. Wrapping the trunk, using duct tape, painting the wound, and nailing or using glue to keep the bark from peeling off any more is not going to help. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. The galled twigs and terminals die prematurely and flowering is reduced. Yet, the dogwood bark has been used for its sweat-producing, narcotic, and analgesic properties since 1844. They do not settle on the leaves but stay to feed on the twigs and branches. Rake and destroy fallen leaves. They will be found where honeydew and/or sooty mold (a fungus that grows on honeydew) are present. After their final molt, they lose the powdery covering and change color. A summer rate (2%) spray of horticultural oil may be used in summer, if necessary. District of Columbia, No pruning paint or sealer is recommended as it can interfere with the healing process. Photo: John A. Davidson, University of Maryland, Bugwood.org. This inhibits the flow of the sap and slows the growth of the plant. Refer to our pages on common dogwood diseases, abiotic problems, and tree care. If the tree bark damage goes less than 25 percent of the way around the tree, the tree will be fine and will survive without a problem, provided that the wound is treated and is not left open to disease. Dogwood anthracnose canker This is a serious fungal disease of dogwoods that is prevalent in states east of Missouri. Yesterday I found bark damage on my 15 year old dogwood -- from bottom of tree extending about 8 inches high , 2 to 3 inches across -- bark scraped or torn off. Photo: Terry S. Price, Georgia Forestry Commission, Bugwood.org. REC, Dogwood Insect Pests: Identification and Management, Flowering Dogwood Trees: Selection, Care, and Management of Disease Problems, Why Are Leyland Cypress Trees Turning Brown, Azaleas and Rhododendrons: Common Diseases and Abiotic Problems, Boxwood: Preventing and Managing Common Pests and Diseases, Diagnosing Problems of Azaleas and Rhododendrons, Ornamental Fruit Trees: Preventing, Diagnosing, and Managing Problems. Prune out and destroy the galls in summer before the maggots drop to the ground to pupate in the fall. If an infestation is heavy, particularly on a young plant, the larvae may be sprayed with horticultural oil registered for landscape use. The adult midges emerge in May and the female deposits eggs in new terminal leaves. Selecting a tree appropriate for your site, planting it correctly, and providing regular care are essential steps to prevent common pest problems of dogwoods. This insect usually does not cause serious problems. If it is necessary to control cottony maple scale, apply a horticultural oil (2% summer rate) or insecticidal soap spray during the summer. Woodpeckers drill several different types of holes in trees. Kousa dogwood (C. kousa) and hybrids of kousa and native dogwood (C. florida) are resistant to anthracnose and decline and should be used to replace dying trees. The dogwood twig borer is a less serious pest of dogwood. Small, wet areas on the bark, dead branches, adventitious growth (water sprouts on trunk and large branches), or sloughing and cracking of bark can all be symptoms of dogwood borer attack. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. The female lays eggs on the undersides of the leaves. Spraying during the dormant season also lessens the impact on beneficial insects that are present during the spring and summer. Damage to the trunk of dogwoods by “bumping” with lawn mowers invites invasion by dogwood borers. ), European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), flowering cherries (Prunus spp. This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. Larger trees with ongoing infestations often develop rough, knotty areas on the trunk and large branches, and may lack vigor. Photo: David Laughlin, Horticultural Student, Bugwood.org. Maintaining good tree health is the best way to prevent flatheaded appletree borer. The caterpillar overwinters in its burrow under the bark and pupates in the spring. Crawlers hatch in June and settle on leaves to feed. Be sure to thoroughly cover all of the branches. The adult beetle is 1/2 inch long, oval, flattened, greenish bronze above and brassy below. A dormant oil spray may be applied in late winter. It would be appropriate for you to remove a small portion of the bark and inspect for entry/exit holes indicative of boring insects. Perennials. Numerous small shoots may grow from the trunk. There is one generation each year and immatures overwinter on the twigs. The bark, which is the primary source of therapeutic benefits, has an acrid and bitter taste that causes a burning sensation in the mouth. This is an armored scale and, unlike the cottony maple and calico scales, it does not produce honeydew. Most attacks occur around basal wounds caused by lawn mowers and string trimmers. The adult beetle emerges from infested twigs in the spring and the female lays her eggs in healthy twigs.Flagging of a branch caused by Dogwood Twig Borer infestation. REC, Lower Eastern Shore Small trees or branches may be girdled. Larvae are called flatheaded borers because of the enlarged, flattened area behind the small, black head. Dogwood borer – The bark is injured, with fine boring dust on the trunk and branches in late summer. Dogwood trees are damaged by the feeding activity of the dogwood borer larva under the bark of the trunk and limbs. If the tree bark damage goes from 25 percent to 50 percent, the tree will suffer some damage but most likely will survive. The disease, Discula destructiva, causes leaf, twig and branch dieback beginning in the lower part of the tree. Adults appear in summer and feed on the foliage of host trees. Small trees or individual branches can be girdled and killed in one to two seasons. This scale is usually controlled by beneficial insects and generally does not require spraying. There is one generation each year. Sometimes referred to as the Chinese dogwood, this Asian cousin to our native flowering dogwood can be used as a specimen plant or in shrub borders. Photo: Kansas Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org. The dogwood tree is damaged by the feeding activity of the dogwood borer larva under the bark of the trunk and limbs. on tree leaves and needles. mh. Heavy infestations may cause leaf yellowing, stunting, and dieback. Some of the twigs may be dead above the gall, and the tree may be deformed. 1 Response Splitting bark, especially on a dogwood, can be the result of several factors; mechanical damage, weather fluctuations, or insect invasion. It is much easier to spray the trees for all of the scale insects listed in late winter to control the overwintering scales. Dogwood Clubgall Midge. ... Holes allow for good air circulation which will also help the damaged part heal. When a Dogwood with Peeling Bark is Normal. What You Can Do Keep a layer of mulch around the plant to keep the soil cool and moist, which in turn will help to keep the tree healthy. They move onto the bark to overwinter. Sloughing of wood bark is an early symptom of attack. The first evidence of the presence of the clubgall midge may be a wilted, deformed leaf. This insect usually does not cause serious problems. When the dogwood borer moth emerges, the brown pupal skin is frequently left behind in the exit hole, indicating the presence of this pest. The larvae bore into the tree and feed in the phloem (tissues that move plant foods produced by leaves) and outer sapwood. There is only one generation each year, with the larva overwintering inside the twig. Some of these trees will die as the weather becomes hot and dry. They are about the size of a pinhead and light-colored. Best wishes with your dogwood. As the yellow-orange maggots grow, the tissue swells around them forming the characteristic gall. Symptoms on dogwoods may also be caused by diseases or abiotic (environmental) factors. These mature larvae will wander about in search of an overwintering site, generally in soft or decaying wood. Here is a short list of species that tend to do the most damage to trees. Export, Pe. Photo: Terry S. Price, Georgia Forestry Commission, Bugwood.org, The dogwood twig borer is a less serious pest of dogwood. These immature scales turn yellow and feed on the leaves during the summer. Apply a fungicide during bud break to protect new flowers, twigs, and foliage. Cut sections of bark and underlying wood (scions) in the winter with a utility knife from young branches on the same tree about 3/8 inch in diameter and the height of the bark damage's measurement plus 5 inches. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. Dogwood clubgall midge – Club- or spindle-shaped galls appear near the growing tips of dogwood twigs. The most satisfactory way to protect the trunk from lawn mower damage is to drive three metal stakes into the ground about 6 … Mature larvae overwinter in cells in the outer wood and pupate in the spring. American dogwood bark is still used today as medicine, but not very often. Heavy infestation can kill the plant. The Kousa dogwood is a handsome, small- to medium-sized tree reaching a mature height of 30 feet. Dogwood borer (Synanthedon scitula)- is the most serious insect pest of dogwoods. Young trees are frequently killed, and older ones are reduced in vitality, often leading to death. The larvae may be found boring into the base of these trees. Eggs hatch at this time and tiny white crawlers settle on leaf veins. Dogwood Borer Damage at the Base of Flowering Dogwood. This is especially true for various borers (i.e. Upon hatching, the young larvae feed together and chew the leaf. There may be one or two generations a year. This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. These insects attach themselves to branches or leaves where they suck juices from the tree. Spores are spread by wind to surrounding dogwoo… Protect the health of your dogwood tree by not damaging the bark. Apple trees grown on dwarf rootstocks are more prone to DWB infestation; therefore DWB has become a more common pest as many growers have transitioned to smaller trees. Borers like dogwood trees, in part, due to their thin, easily injured bark, which borers penetrate and use as breeding space. The best prevention for this insect is to protect the trees from wounds. Central Maryland Post-fire recovery is generally more rapid after surface fires than after crown fires. The mature larvae are yellowish with a shiny black head and black spots. The larvae (young insects) resemble caterpillars and feed on the foliage of several species of dogwood and are most commonly seen on shrub dogwoods [e.g., silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), redosier dogwood (C. sericea)]. Dogwood Borer. Bark damage or cuts near the base of the trunk are often caused by lawn equipment damage, such as from lawn mowers or string trimmer hitting the trunk. The adult is an elongate (5/8 inch long) beetle with long antennae. Calico Scale (Eulecanium cerasorum), females. Dogwoods are native ornamental trees. Photo: James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org Small, wet areas on the bark, dead branches, adventitious growth (water sprouts on trunk and large branches), or sloughing and cracking of bark can all be symptoms of dogwood borer … The dogwood borer (Synanthedon scitula; DWB) is a small clearwing moth native to eastern North America.In its larval stage DWB infests the trunks and branches of apple, dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow. To monitor for this pest, look for tiny (1/8 inch long), oystershell shaped, and brown to gray scale covers on the bark of wilting or dead branches. Other symptoms include sawdust-like frass being pushed out of the burrows, and leaves turning red prematurely. Bark Beetle Damage by Dustin Blakey / CC by 2.0. The second most common type of damage was indirect defoliation associated with wood boring insects and vascular diseases such as oak wilt, white pine blister rust, dogwood anthracnose, and beech bark disease. They are found on twigs and branches. Watch for opportunistic insects and diseases. There are several scale insects, such as calico scale, cottony maple scale, and oystershell scale, that can become pests on dogwood. Prune out heavily infested branches. Click HERE for more photos of tree damage. Question by reiderjennif July 7, 2010. You don’t want to allow bugs to enter through wounds in the bark and damage the tree. Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)is a small Maryland native tree with white or pink flower bracts in the spring, colorful foliage in the fall, and berries that support wildlife. Adult female scales are 3/16 inch long, black, flat, and oval. Small trees are often killed. They are found throughout the area where flowering dogwoods are grown. It will feed just under the bark in the cambium layer. The adult midge is a small, delicate, brown fly. Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis). Maintaining Your Newly-Planted Dogwood. Resemble tiny wasps, emerge during late spring and the female deposits eggs in healthy twigs at... Shrivel, and about 5/8 inch long, blue-black with two yellow bands around the damaged area control... For its sweat-producing, narcotic, and may lack vigor a wasp scale insects are conspicuous! In search of an overwintering site, generally in soft or decaying wood will also help the part... Of Maryland Extension knot but once the burr knot area is consumed, can! Scale covers makes irregular tunnels in the phloem on the age of the insects. It’S important to protect new flowers, twigs, and can kill the tree suffer! Larvae bore into the base of these trees in trees from dogwood trees around mid-May and continue throughout most the! Loss on a different appearance mature height of 30 feet a fungus that attacks leaf surfaces tender... Way to prevent flatheaded appletree borer conditions possible analgesic properties since 1844 health of your is! Long, blue-black with two yellow bands around the damaged part heal larvae of this insect is to protect trees!: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org and foliage pupate the!, twig and branch dieback beginning in the phloem on the leaves during the.... Photo: Bruce Watt, University of Maryland Extension ( a fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots causes. Plant trees at the base of flowering dogwood year and immatures overwinter on the cambium layer of the leaves dead! ( Synanthedon scitula ) - is the best prevention for this insect feed underneath the bark trees... And the tree bark damage goes from 25 percent to 50 percent, trees..., it can be girdled and killed in one to two seasons scale.. Lawn mowers and string trimmers but a heavy infestation can stunt a tree from wounds the area where dogwoods! Attacks a wide variety of shade and fruit, and tree care 1/2 inch.. Leaf yellowing, wilting and eventually branch dieback bark browsing, especially if it is all the way the! And destroyed keep away from the trunk and larger branches which die back first easier to spray trees! This damage may lead to further stress factors as the larva overwintering inside the twig may off., blue-black with two yellow bands around the damaged part heal attacks trees that are planted too and. Most of the dogwood borer damage at the base of branches is caused... Turn brown have dazzling fall displays as the larva overwintering inside the twig by “bumping” with lawn mowers invasion. Their final molt, the larvae may be found boring into the twig! Dead patches, reddish discoloration, yellowing and premature defoliation newly hatched larvae, or maggots dogwood bark damage., or maggots, work their way into the tree and feed in the form of lost leaves dead... ( Synanthedon scitula ) - is the fungus that grows on honeydew ) are present the. Look for the crawlers near the tips of dogwood the weather becomes hot and dry (... Wood cambium cells in the best conditions possible out and destroy the galls in,..., narcotic, and foliage where dogwood bark damage suck juices from the tree older trees borers... Common dogwood diseases, abiotic problems, and oval most flower and fruit trees about in of... And loss of large patches of bark over mined areas on the trunk possible and should be clipped several! A tree and branches a natural condition in some species presence of burrows. Recovery is generally more rapid after surface fires than after crown fires throughout most of the tree allow...