There are two main points of view with regard to cultural change as a cause of the French Revolution: the direct influence of Enlightenment ideas on French citizens, meaning that they valued the ideas of liberty and equality discussed by Rousseau and Voltaire et al, or the indirect influence of the Enlightenment insofar as it created a "philosophical society". For example, they were exempt from paying many taxes and were allowed to collect dues from the peasants. It was a process of years that many factors greatly contributed. What were the main causes of the French Revolution? What were the main causes of the French Revolution? Some causes of the French Revolution were absolute monarchy, corrupt leadership, unfair land distribution, unfair tax code, rigid social class structure, government fiances, poor harvests, King Louis's failure to accept reforms, and formation of the National Assembly. The next major cause of the French Revolution was the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI and resentment that French citizens felt towards the authority of the king. As a result, the winter of 1784 was severe in Europe and the following summers included extreme droughts that caused poor harvests and famine. What were the main causes of the French Revolution? Hereditary rule meant that the monarch received their position due to their birth and as one in a long family line of monarchs. One school of interpretation maintains that French society under the ancien régime was rent by class war. Third Estate called themselves this. What was the Meeting of the Estates General? Again, this idea caused French citizens to begin to question the authority of their own king and to begin to think of other ways of government. Historians generally view the underlying causes of the French Revolution as driven by the failure of the Ancien Régime ' to respond to increasing social and economic inequality. #1 Social Inequality in France due to the Estates System In the 1780s, the population of France was around 24 million and 700 thousand and it was divided into three estates. The political system of France before the French Revolution was called the "Ancien Regime." The causes of the French revolution that I thought that were interesting to me were inequalities in Society, Enlightenment ideas, financial crisis. For example, Louis XVI became King of France in 1774 when his grandfather Louis XV died. Specifically, the writings of John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Baron de Montesquieu greatly influenced the revolutionaries in France. They called themselves the National Assembly. After nearly a decade of dramatic weather and poor harvests, the peasants were suffering to survive day-to-day life in France. Usually a person remained in one estate for his or her lifetime, and any movement from upwards in the estate system could take many generations. Political, social, and economic conditions in France contributed to the discontent felt by many French people-especially those of the third estate. #5 Financial Crisis caused due … Louis XVI was indecisive, paid little attention to government advisers, and had little patience. The main cause of the french revolution. Recent study shows two main causes of revolution. Bankers eventually refused to lend anymore money. The nobility occupied most of the powerful positions in the army, Church and government. The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions. By 1789, the estates system had begun to anger the citizens of the third estate as they resented their position within French society. Major Causes Of The French Revolution 1607 Words | 7 Pages. These factors destabilized society and increased the political influence of the commoners. The absolutism of the monarchy, particularly pronounced since Louis XIV, was criticised. In fact, images produced at the time display the burden that the top two estates placed on the third estate. Government should be about the people. The First Estate was the Roman Catholic clergy… Western Civilization: French Revolution, Fascism in Italy, Nazi Regime Sherly Familia EUH 2001 Professor Miller December 13, 2017 French Revolution Many causes and significances led to the commence of the French Revolution. I believe the main causes of the French revolution were absolutism and privilege, famine, and economics. The fourth major cause of the French Revolution was the impact that weather conditions had on the French crops in the years immediately before the outbreak of the revolution. They passed laws in the name of the French people. The Revolution led to many changes in France, which at the time of the Revolution was the most powerful state in Europe. France itself experienced another series of poor harvests in 1787 and 1788 with extreme winters. The French Revolution is not only a significant event in the history of Europe but of the entire world. However, there have been historical debates over the major contributing factor that had caused the French Revolution. Political Cause 2. Causes for the Revolution in 1830: The congress of Vienna restored Louis-XVIII as the king of France. Where was the Meeting of the Estates General held? Another . This furthered the power of a monarch because it ensured that the king or queen did not get their power from the people, and therefore the people had not control or say over the monarch’s rule. Here are the 10 major causes of the French Revolution. The Church had many privileges, including the collection of tithes. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 was one of the most important events in the history of the world. The overall course and account of French Revolution can be divided into three areas, the causes of the revolution, the course of events that took place in the entire sequence of activities, followed by the outcomes and consequences of the revolution. Though initially it suffered various reverses, France, under the leadership of Napoleon B… The clergy was divided in that the higher church positions, like bishops, were held by members of the nobility, while positions in lower clergy were often held by members of the peasant class. The shortage of food, especially after the agrarian crisis of 1788 and 1789, generated a popular discontent: the plebeians mainly ate bread to survive. The deeper causes for its collapse are more difficult to establish. What was the down side to this? This idea caused people to question the legitimacy of Louis XVI to rule when he did not have the support of many of the citizens within France. ...The major causes of the French Revolution were the disputes and inequalities between the different types of social classes in French society, and the financial problems, facing the French government, during the year of 1779. The main social cause of the French Revolution was the high population density in the country. Overpopulation caused an unrelenting strain on natural resources in the country, and this led to a number of complications that eventually gave rise to the revolution. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 was one of the most important events in the history of the world. All other people in France, about 98% of the population belonged to the Third Estate. The kings Louis XV and Louis XVI did not manage to stop the wars campaigns despite of their proclaimed will of peace. Absolutism and privilege were key factors in the French Revolution. He accepted to be a constitutional monarch and gave a charter to the people. More specifically, in the decade before the outbreak of the revolution France experienced drastic shifts in the weather that negatively effected the food production of the country. Louis borrowed money from other kings. The monarch had complete control over all aspects of the society, including: political power, economics, and all forms of authority. France - France - The causes of the French Revolution: In an immediate sense, what brought down the ancien régime was its own inability to change or, more simply, to pay its way. Causes of the French Revolution 1. International: struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state 2. Third Estate wanted to change the government. People wanted to become a democracy and it doubled their debt. They resented the power of the Church and the nobility. Louis XVI was fond of waging wars and took active part in many wars. Political conflict: conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over the “reform” of the tax system led to paralysis and bankruptcy. Social Cause 3. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 was one of the most important events in the history of the world. 2 privileges and burdens of French society. New views about power and authority, inspired by the American Revolution, demand equality, liberty, and democracy (from Rousseau/Voltaire). the start of the French Revolution were fired. What was Louis' solution about France's debt? The causes: Political: France was a monarchy that was being run by the Kings for centuries. French society was divided into three types of society :-) 1 first estate #3 The Rise of the Bourgeoisie. #3 The Rise of the Bourgeoisie. Revolutionary France was considered dangerous by the other European monarchies who viewed it with both fear and anger. The three main causes of French revolution are as follows: 1. However, looking back on the process and cause of revolution is efficient way to think about current socioeconomic structure. The French Revolution did not occur on a whim, for the nation’s instability had been a growing problem throughout the years leading up to the revolution. Borrowed money from bankers for American Revolutionaries in their war against Great Britain (DOUBLED THEIR DEBT). The French Revolution of 1789 had many long-range causes. Louis was not happy with the National Assembly so he locked them out of the meeting room (put a note on the door that said it was closed for cleaning). The wars against many powerful European countries had left the country in a great debt that was even increased by the expenses of the crown. These three factors each played an important role in the French Revolution, which led to the fall of the old regime. Each of these three Enlightenment thinkers questioned the traditional authority of an absolute monarch and argued against the rigid class divisions of feudalism, or the estates-system, present in France. #1 Social Inequality in France due to the Estates System. 1. International: struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state. Similar to other absolute monarchs, Louis XVI ruled France based on the principles of hereditary rules and divine right of kings. The clergy included people such as: monks, nuns, parish priests and bishops. For the cost of his regular extravagant expenses, he increased taxes which were paid by the third estate. The Enlightenment ideas were particularly popularised by the influence of the American War of Independence on the soldiers who returned, and of Benjamin Franklinhi… The lofty goals of those who supported it were "Life, Liberty, Fraternity". There was a complete break with the Age of Reason and a new kind of literature known as the Romantic Revival came into exist with the publication of Lyrical Ballad (1798). Why was the government in debt? The third estate was forced to pay heavy taxed while the other two did not and many in the peasant class felt as though they were being crushed by the clergy and nobility. The tottering economic structure of France was also one of the reasons for the outbreak of the revolution. What was expanding? The French Revolution of 1789 was inarguably a significant turning point in the history of Europe. Queen had poor advice and interfered in government which was bad because she was a member of the royal family in Austria who is France's enemy (married to Louis as a peace treaty). Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette spent a lot of money. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The French Revolution (1789–1799) Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. The Main Causes Of The French Revolution 1174 Words | 5 Pages. In the 1780’s the population of France numbered about 24,700,000, and it was divided into three estates. As well, heavy snow blocked roads and made transportation incredibly difficult across the country. It began when France, anticipating an attack, declared war on Prussia and Austria in the spring of 1792. #2 Tax Burden on the Third Estate. Major Causes There wasn't one event or condition that led to the French Revolution, but, rather, a number of factors came together to cause a perfect storm leading to the revolt of the people against the king. The years before the French Revolution (which started in 1789 AD.) This was the first movement towards the French Revolution. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey, Byron, Shelley and Keats were the poets who specialised in this style of poetry. The next major cause of the French Revolution was the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI and resentment that French citizens felt towards the authority of the king. Also, each Estate met in a different room. #4 Ideas put forward by Enlightenment philosophers. Rapid population growth and restrictions caused by the inability to adequately finance government debt resulted in economic depression, unemployment and high food prices. He wanted to make everyone happy (hid from his problems). The peasant class of France worked the fields and depended on the production of yearly grain harvests for their subsistence. Assess the view that the Enlightenment had been the main cause of the French Revolution. Enlightenment ideas, Economic Troubles, Weak Leader, Meeting of the Estates General, National Assembly, and Tennis Court Oath. As the spring approached and the snow melted, many areas of France flooded and led to worse harvests, as farmers struggled with fields that were under water. Production and Trade were expanding but the burden of taxes made it hard to conduct business profitably. When people revolted against the French crown, not only did they succeeded in forming a new French republic, they spread the tendrils of revolution to other European monarchies. 'In addition to these, there was the growth of the bourgeoisie, a social order whose new wealth, … ​The ideals of liberty and equality, that were needed to overthrow Louis XVI, emerged first from the writings of important and influential thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment. CAUSES. The reason they did this was because they hated the old way of things and wanted it to change. Tithes are one-tenth of a person’s income which is formally taken in support of the church and clergy. There are two main points of view with regard to cultural change as a cause of the French Revolution: the direct influence of Enlightenment ideas on French citizens, meaning that they valued the ideas of liberty and equality discussed by Rousseau and Voltaire et al, or the indirect influence of the Enlightenment insofar as it created a "philosophical society". #5 Financial Crisis caused due … Absolutism was becoming an increasingly unpopular form of government at the time. This was a terrible blow to the old enemy of France, England, but also to the finan… The French monarchy was financially in trouble since the end of the reign of Louis XIV, the Sun-King, in 1715. #1 Social Inequality in France due to the Estates System. France - France - The causes of the French Revolution: In an immediate sense, what brought down the ancien régime was its own inability to change or, more simply, to pay its way. This model of government directly challenged the authority of the king because it involved his power being divided into three parts and others gaining more authority. Held at Versailles which was one cause for debt (so expensive to build), Louis did not create debt but inherited most of it and created some of it. In 1778, Louis XVI decided to support the American Revolution. Bad weather caused crop failure which lead to shortage of grain=price of bread doubled. These factors destabilized society and increased the political influence of the commoners. The Second Estate consisted of the French nobility, which numbered about 400,000 people. This is the period before the French Revolution and is a time known as the Ancien Regime. Consequently, the national debt increased beyond limit. Here are the 10 major causes of the French Revolution. Their questioning of authority and the role of the government inspired the revolutionaries, and ordinary citizens, of France. This group included: merchants, lawyers, poor laborers, and ordinary peasants. 3. Before the outbreak of the French Revolution, the political, social, and economic conditions were bad, but no revolution in the world ever takes place for any single cause. Causes of the French Revolution. 2. One school of interpretation maintains that French society under the ancien régime was rent by class war. The major cause of the French Revolution was the disputes between the different types of social classes in French society. Louis' solution was to impose taxes on the Second Estate (nobility) because he reached his limit on taxing the Third Estate. The French Revolution resulted from two state crises which emerged during the 1750s–80s, one constitutional and one financial, with the latter providing a 'tipping point' in 1788/89 when desperate action by government ministers backfired and unleashed a revolution against the 'Ancien Regime. The National Assembly met at the Tennis Court and they refused to leave until they had drawn out the new constitution. Causes of the French Revolution 1) Hard economic times --Foreign wars created huge debt --Peasants were responsible for paying the debt 2) The inequity of the 3 Estates --What are they? There were several causes for French Revolution, among them are: Economic: the main causes within the sphere of the economy were the fiscal deficit, the economic crisis, the debt owed by the State and the rise in prices without product control. For example, on the 8th of June in 1783 the Laki volcano in Iceland erupted and sent ash high into the atmosphere which spread across the skies of Europe. They needed salt to flavor and preserve their food. All of these hardships were felt the most by the poorest in French society. One of the changes was the decline of the power of the nobles, which had a severe impact on the loyalty of some of the nobles to King Louis XVI. How did the French Revolution end the Enlightenment Period? Finally, Montesquieu advocated for a system of government based on a separation of powers with three branches of government, including: executive branch, legislative branch and judicial branch. Another reason that the revolution started was an economic crisis in the monarchical government. The monarch was able to maintain absolute control over the society with the addition of feudalism, which involved people being placed into different estates of power, such as: clergy, nobility and peasants. were ones of vast, unexpected change and confusion. The ideas of the intellectuals of the Enlightenment brought new views to government and society. These people made up 1% of the An absolute monarchy is a form of government that involved society being ruled over by an all-powerful king or queen. 1. For example, the winter of 1788 was the coldest in decades which froze and ruined stores of grain and other food items. The first of the general causes … The Main causes of French Revolution are :-) 1 despotic rules of king Louis XVI:-) due to financial crisis King Louis XVI forced to increase taxes which was mostly paid by the people of third state which create a tension in society. Maximilien Robespierre was a lawyer-turned-politician. The most important causes of the French Revolution were the nation's debt, the refusal of the nobility and the clergy to pay taxes, egalitarian philosophies, and high food costs. These three topics out of the five that I choose have been appealing to me because I see this in today’s world. What were the lofty goals of those who supported the French Revolution? This caused the masses to revolt and create riots. Much more than a change of the political regime, it turned the French society upside-down in all its dimensions. The Main Causes of French Revolution. Proclaimed the end of absolute monarchy and beginning of representative government. Enlightenment ideas, Economic Troubles, Weak Leader, Meeting of the Estates General, National Assembly, and Tennis Court Oath. What were the Enlightenment ideas? They paid most of the taxes collected by the government but were generally looked down upon by the nobility. Each Estate only gets one vote which isn't fair because if it was a democracy, each delegate should get one vote. The nobles owned about 20% of the land and had many feudal privileges. The American Revolution also influenced the coming of the French Revolution. This would help the Third Estate because they have the most delegates (97% of population). The Enlightenment occurred during the 18th century, in the decades before the 1789 outbreak of the revolution and although the Enlightenment took place many years before the outbreak of the French Revolution, its ideas and achievements still had a profound effect on the French Revolution. The estate to which a person belonged was very important because it determined that person’s rights, obligations and status. Enlightenment period ended because the french revolution went so poorly. Causes. France was experiencing a great famine at that time. When we think about French-revolution, we tend to just focus on the fact that it occurred. Interesting Facts about the Causes of the French Revolution The commoners resented a tax on salt called the "gabelle." The deeper causes for its collapse are more difficult to establish. They wanted equal taxation and rights for all classes. He had drained the financial resources of France in wars. #2 Tax Burden on the Third Estate. Third Estate was starving, very poor, and already pay 50% of their earnings. He is known as one of the most influential people of the French… There are many factors that explain the Revolution, but I will try to synthesize the causes, as requested, into six main ones. In fact, the ideas of many Enlightenment thinkers were commonly discussed and debated in the salons of France, in which intellectuals and would gather to discuss the ideas of the day. An absolute monarchy is a form of government that involved society being ruled over by an all-powerful king or queen. Due to the deregulation of the grain market, the cost of bread increased and people were hungry and desperate. Some historians regard that it was the economic causes which fanned the flames of revolution in France. The most important causes of the French Revolution were the nation's debt, the refusal of the nobility and the clergy to pay taxes, egalitarian philosophies, and high food costs. The Revolution led to many changes in France, which at the time of the Revolution, was the most powerful state in Europe. For his part, Rousseau argued against all class divisions in society, which caused French citizens to question the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI and the unequal nature of the estates-system. The first cause is budget deficit problems. This led to theFrench Revolutionary Wars, a series of military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802. People starved. He was born into the throne...didn't want the hardships of being king. #4 Ideas put forward by Enlightenment philosophers. The major cause of the French Revolution was the disputes between the different types of social classes in French society. They pitted the French Republic against Great Britain, Austria andseveral other monarchies. The Causes of the French Revolution: Social, Economical, Political There is something unique about the Revolution. As well, medieval European absolute monarchs included the practise of divine right of kings, meaning that the monarch derived his or her power from god. He realized that the restoration of old order was impossible. It was to figure out how to deal with the crisis and who to tax. Posted on February 24, 2014 by joseliriano. The causes of the French Revolution . The First Estate was made up of the Roman Catholic clergy who numbered about 100,000 in the 1780’s. Financial Condition: Another cause of the French Revolution was the condition of the finances of the … Answer: Causes of the French Revolution: Despotic rule of Louis XVI: He became the ruler of France in 1774. Burden of taxes upset nobility and Cost of living increased. New ideas on society from the Age of Enlightenment caused citizens from the third estate to begin to question the estates system and this helped lead to the outbreak of the revolution. Why should France have never gotten involved with the American Revolution? The first estate: clergy or the leaders of the Catholic church. The second major cause of the French Revolution is the history of the estates system in France. For example, John Locke argued that a leader may only govern a society if he has the consent of those he is governing. Also, the Church did not pay land taxes, even though it owned about 6% of the land and was very wealthy. 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